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How many people are vegetarian or vegan?

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Thank you for your inquiry to Logan University! BIOL Neuroethology 4 NW Comparative exploration of the neural, hormonal, and genetic mechanisms that control behaviors necessary for survival and reproduction in animals. Logan University is dedicated to maximizing human performance through innovative health education and continuous quality improvement. Cellular Aspects 3 NW H. Last week the administrators were preparing for the new school year by digging deeper into topics such as cultural proficiency, strategic planning, NGSS Next Generation Science Standards and legislative updates. ASCD is joined in this effort by Whole Child Partner organizations representing the education, arts, health, policy, and community sectors.

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According to the article,. Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate - An animal-mineral cow or hog-derived, or milk , or vegetable-mineral. It is a common food additive which is often used to condition dough or to blend together ingredients which do not normally blend, such as oil and water. Our guide reports it as May Be Non-Vegetarian. Archer Daniels Midland Co. Sodium is a mineral which is added.

L-cysteine is an amino acid needed by human beings. The most common source is human hair and it is most commonly used in bread products. It is considered vegetarian. You might find our Guide to Food Ingredients very helpful in deciphering ingredient labels. It lists the uses, sources and definitions of common food ingredients.

The guide also states whether the ingredient is vegan, typically vegan, vegetarian, typically vegetarian, typically non-vegetarian and non-vegetarian. You can read more about the guide at www. You can order online at www. We have many vegetarian and vegetarian-friendly restaurants listed in our book Vegetarian Journal's Guide to Natural Foods Restaurants in the U. For more information about the restaurant guide go to www.

Also, don't forget about our Guide to Fast Food if you are on the road. You can also check out the websites for many all vegetarian restaurants on our links pages at www. You can also access our recipe sections. These are at www. There are also great vegetarian recipe websites online: You can also go to the search engine of your choice and type in "vegetarian recipes" and you will discover thousands of websites.

There is a cookbook that might be of assistance, as well as an organization that might be able to help. They have a number of handouts on foods which contain possible allergens and recipes which can be used. They could answer some of your specific questions. You can also try and find it in your local bookstore or library.

The book notes which recipes are safe for people with specific food allergies, especially wheat and soy. If you are looking for specific food alternatives you might want to try contacting Ener-G Foods Inc. Wheat-free breads, pastas, Ener-G Egg Replacer, flours, and other products for people with special needs.

The Vegetarian Resource Group VRG is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating the public on vegetarianism and veganism and the interrelated issues of health, nutrition, ecology, ethics, and world hunger. In addition to publishing the Vegetarian Journal , VRG produces and sells cookbooks , other books, pamphlets , and article reprints. Our health professionals, activists, and educators work with businesses and individuals to bring about healthy changes in your school, workplace, and community.

Registered dietitians and physicians aid in the development of nutrition related publications and answer member or media questions about the vegetarian and vegan diet. The Vegetarian Resource Group is a non-profit organization.

Financial support comes primarily from memberships, contributions, and book sales. Click here for ways to support this website and The Vegetarian Resource Group.

The contents of this website and our other publications, including Vegetarian Journal, are not intended to provide personal medical advice.

Medical advice should be obtained from a qualified health professional. We often depend on product and ingredient information from company statements.

Please use your best judgment about whether a product is suitable for you. To be sure, do further research or confirmation on your own. Any page on this site may be reproduced for non-commercial use if left intact with credit given to The Vegetarian Resource Group and each page linked to www. What are the different types of vegetarians? How do I become a vegetarian?

Why do people become vegetarian? My teenager wants to become vegetarian. What are the nutritional needs for young vegetarians? Where can I find vegan marshmallows? Is kosher gelatin vegan? What is Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate? What about other "hidden" ingredients? Where can I find out about vegetarian restaurants in Nebraska? Where can I find non-leather shoes? Making more food available to mothers is even more important in societies with cultural restrictions on women's diets.

Efforts to increase the amount of food available to adolescent, pregnant, and lactating women can be the most effective way of improving their health and that of their infants. Summary of Main Points Unless extremely malnourished, virtually all mothers can produce adequate amounts of breastmilk. When the breastfeeding mother is undernourished, it is safer, easier, and less expensive to give her more food than to expose the infant to the risks associated with breastmilk substitutes.

Maternal deficiencies of some micronutrients can affect the quality of breastmilk. These deficiencies should be avoided by improving the diet or providing supplements to the mother. Lactation places high demands on maternal stores of energy and protein. These stores need to be established, conserved, and replenished. Delay of the first birth and adequate birth spacing help ensure that maternal stores are sufficient for healthy pregnancy and lactation.

Breastfeeding provides health benefits to the mother as well as to the infant. How much extra food does a breastfeeding mother need? To support lactation and maintain maternal reserves, most mothers in developing countries will need to eat about additional kilocalories every day an increase of 20 percent to 25 percent over the usual intake before pregnancy.

Well-nourished mothers who gain enough weight during pregnancy need less because they can use body fat and other stores accumulated during pregnancy. Should certain foods be eaten or avoided by breastfeeding mothers? There are no specific foods that must be eaten or avoided by the breastfeeding mother, despite what many people think. Consumption of a variety of foods is the best dietary advice. Effect of Maternal Nutrition on Breastfeeding Can malnourished mothers produce enough milk to breastfeed successfully?

In all but the most extreme cases, malnourished mothers can follow the same recommendations for breastfeeding as mothers who are not malnourished. These recommendations include exclusive breastfeeding 1 for six months followed by on-demand breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary foods. There is a common misconception that malnutrition greatly reduces the amount of milk a mother produces.

Although malnutrition may affect the quality of milk, studies show that the amount of breastmilk produced depends mainly on how often and how effectively the baby sucks on the breast. If a mother temporarily produces less milk than the infant needs, the infant responds by suckling more vigorously, more frequently, or longer at each feeding. This stimulates greater milk production. When the breastfeeding mother is under-nourished, it is safer, easier, and less expensive to give her more food than to expose an infant under six months of age to the risks associated with feeding breastmilk substitutes or other foods.

Some evidence suggests it can. Two randomized intervention trials, in Burma and Guatemala, have so far been conducted to answer this question. In both studies, food supplementation of malnourished lactating mothers resulted in a small increase in infant milk intake. In another study in Indonesia, maternal supplementation during pregnancy improved infant growth rates, possibly by increasing breastmilk production.

Should breastfeeding mothers take extra vitamins and minerals? A diverse diet containing animal products and fortified foods will help ensure that the mother consumes enough micronutrients for both herself and her breastfeeding infant. If a diverse diet is not available, a micronutrient supplement may help. For example, in areas where vitamin A deficiency is common, it is currently recommended that all mothers take a single high-dose supplement of , international units 3 IU of vitamin A as soon as possible after delivery.

Studies have shown that such a supplement improves the vitamin A levels in the mother, in breastmilk, and in the infant. High doses of vitamin A are not recommended for women during pregnancy or later than eight weeks after delivery or later than six weeks if the mother is not breastfeeding because too much vitamin A may cause damage to the developing fetus.

The levels of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B, iodine, and selenium in breastmilk are also affected by how much is in the food the mother eats. Additional calcium and iron, in particular, are often needed to protect maternal reserves. One of the most important is lactational infertility. This is the period of time after giving birth that the mother does not become pregnant due to the hormonal effects of breastfeeding. Studies show that this effect is greater when the infant suckles more frequently and is exclusively breastfed.

Increasing the interval between births has benefits for the mother and her children. A related effect is lactational amenorrhea, the period of time after giving birth that the mother does not menstruate due to the same hormonal effects of breastfeeding. This is the basis for the lactational amenorrhea method LAM 4 of contraception. There are many other benefits of breastfeeding for the mother.

Breastfeeding immediately after delivery stimulates contraction of the uterus. This may help reduce loss of blood and risk of hemorrhage, a major cause of maternal mortality. There is good evidence that breastfeeding reduces the risk of ovarian and breast cancer and helps prevent osteoporosis. If all three criteria are met, the risk of pregnancy is less than 2 percent.

Does breastfeeding affect the health of mothers with HIV? Although one study suggested that lactation accelerated progression to AIDS, later studies did not support this finding. A study in Kenya comparing breastfeeding with artifical feeding reported that HIV-positive mothers who breastfed were at greater risk of death than those who used infant formula. This study has been criticized for various flaws in its methods and interpretation. Three subsequent attempts to verify the findings—in Tanzania, in South Africa, and in a pooled analysis of nine clinical trials—found no relationship between infant feeding pattern and the health of HIVpositive mothers.

Both HIV infection and lactation increase nutritional requirements. HIV-positive mothers who breastfeed need access to sufficient food of adequate quality to meet these increased nutritional needs and to protect their stores.

They should be counseled about the health and nutritional effects of breastfeeding for themselves and their children. The main concern is the balance of risks and benefits of breastfeeding for the infant. Program Implications and Guidelines What can programs do to support breastfeeding and maternal nutrition? Information presented in this FAQ has implications for the distribution of food in the household, the division of labor, and the delivery of services to women.

Health care providers can help improve maternal nutrition by counseling women about breastfeeding, increased food intake, dietary diversification, work-load reduction, and family planning including delaying the first birth, birth spacing, and options for limiting family size.

For undernourished populations and populations displaced by war and natural disasters, the use of breastmilk substitutes can be particularly dangerous. The best solution is to feed the mother, not the infant, and to give her whatever support she needs for breastfeeding. Providing additional foods and fluids to the mother helps both mother and child. The time for intervention should not be limited to periods of pregnancy and lactation.

Adequate nutrition is a cumulative process. The recommendations in the box on page 5 are suggested to improve the nutrition of adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. These recommendations, coupled with optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, will contribute to good health and nutrition throughout the life cycle. Diversify the diet to improve the quality and micronutrient intake.

Increase daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Consume animal products, if feasible. Use fortified foods, such as vitamin A-enriched sugar and other products and iron-enriched and vitamin-enriched flour or other staples, when available. Recommended during periods of special needs At certain times, girls and women have heightened nutritional requirements.

During these times, they should follow the above recommendations plus those listed below. During adolescence and before pregnancy. During the interval between stopping lactation and the next pregnancy Plan and ensure an adequate period at least six months between stopping lactation and the next pregnancy to allow for the necessary build-up of energy and micronutrient reserves.

Further Reading Allen LH. Effects on breast milk and infant nutrition, and priorities for intervention. Relationships between maternal nutritional status and milk energy output of women in developing countries.

Energy and protein requirements during lactation. Annual Review of Nutrition Impact of food supplementation during lactation on infant breast-milk intake and on the proportion of infants exclusively breast-fed. Journal of Nutrition

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