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MyKad started as identity cards carried by all citizens and resident non-citizens. Available applications now include identity, travel documents, drivers license, health information, an electronic wallet, ATM bank-card, public toll-road and transit payments, and public key encryption infrastructure. Smart cards have been advertised as suitable for personal identification tasks, because they are engineered to be tamper resistant.

The chip usually implements some cryptographic algorithm. There are, however, several methods for recovering some of the algorithm's internal state. Differential power analysis involves measuring the precise time and electric current required for certain encryption or decryption operations.

This can deduce the on-chip private key used by public key algorithms such as RSA. Some implementations of symmetric ciphers can be vulnerable to timing or power attacks as well. Smart cards can be physically disassembled by using acid, abrasives, solvents, or some other technique to obtain unrestricted access to the on-board microprocessor. Although such techniques may involve a risk of permanent damage to the chip, they permit much more detailed information e.

The benefits of smart cards are directly related to the volume of information and applications that are programmed for use on a card. Multi-factor and proximity authentication can and has been embedded into smart cards to increase the security of all services on the card.

For example, a smart card can be programmed to only allow a contactless transaction if it is also within range of another device like a uniquely paired mobile phone.

This can significantly increase the security of the smart card. Governments and regional authorities save money because of improved security, better data and reduced processing costs.

These savings help reduce public budgets or enhance public services. Individuals have better security and more convenience with using smart cards that perform multiple services. For example, they only need to replace one card if their wallet is lost or stolen.

The data storage on a card can reduce duplication, and even provide emergency medical information. The first main advantage of smart cards is their flexibility. Smart cards have multiple functions which simultaneously can be an ID, a credit card, a stored-value cash card, and a repository of personal information such as telephone numbers or medical history.

The card can be easily replaced if lost, and, the requirement for a PIN or other form of security provides additional security from unauthorised access to information by others. At the first attempt to use it illegally, the card would be deactivated by the card reader itself. The second main advantage is security. Smart cards can be electronic key rings, giving the bearer ability to access information and physical places without need for online connections.

They are encryption devices, so that the user can encrypt and decrypt information without relying on unknown, and therefore potentially untrustworthy, appliances such as ATMs.

Smart cards are very flexible in providing authentication at different level of the bearer and the counterpart. Finally, with the information about the user that smart cards can provide to the other parties, they are useful devices for customizing products and services. Smart cards can be used in electronic commerce , over the Internet, though the business model used in current electronic commerce applications still cannot use the full potential of the electronic medium.

An advantage of smart cards for electronic commerce is their use customize services. For example, in order for the service supplier to deliver the customized service, the user may need to provide each supplier with their profile, a boring and time-consuming activity.

A smart card can contain a non-encrypted profile of the bearer, so that the user can get customized services even without previous contacts with the supplier.

The plastic or paper card in which the chip is embedded is fairly flexible. The larger the chip, the higher the probability that normal use could damage it. Cards are often carried in wallets or pockets, a harsh environment for a chip and antenna in contactless cards. However, for large banking systems, failure-management costs can be more than offset by fraud reduction.

The production, use and disposal of PVC plastic is known to be more harmful to the environment than other plastics. If the account holder's computer hosts malware , the smart card security model may be broken. Malware can override the communication both input via keyboard and output via application screen between the user and the application. Banks like Fortis and Belfius in Belgium and Rabobank " random reader " in the Netherlands combine a smart card with an unconnected card reader to avoid this problem.

The customer enters a challenge received from the bank's website, a PIN and the transaction amount into the reader. The reader returns an 8-digit signature. This signature is manually entered into the personal computer and verified by the bank, preventing point-of-sale-malware from changing the transaction amount. Smart cards have also been the targets of security attacks.

These attacks range from physical invasion of the card's electronics, to non-invasive attacks that exploit weaknesses in the card's software or hardware.

The usual goal is to expose private encryption keys and then read and manipulate secure data such as funds. Once an attacker develops a non-invasive attack for a particular smart card model, he or she is typically able to perform the attack on other cards of that model in seconds, often using equipment that can be disguised as a normal smart card reader.

Tamper-evident and audit features in a smart card system help manage the risks of compromised cards. Another problem is the lack of standards for functionality and security. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article's lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. Contactless smart card and Credit card. List of smart cards.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 13 February Retrieved 29 July Archived from the original on Identification cards — Integrated circuit cards — Part 2: Cards with contacts — Dimensions and location of the contacts.

Retrieved 7 August A las pruebas me remito in Spanish. The electronic DNI has died: Retrieved March 20, Retrieved August 6, Retrieved 24 September Retrieved 24 April A systematic literature review".

Journal of Biomedical Informatics. Recent years have witnessed the design of standards and the promulgation of directives concerning security and privacy in EHR systems. However, more work should be done to adopt these regulations and to deploy secure EHR systems. Retrieved February 20, Depending upon your starting weight and activity level, your daily calorie intake to lose weight should be between calories and calories per day. Packaged frozen foods, such as Weight Watchers Smart Ones, can help you control your calorie intake and make food preparation easy.

Smart Ones frozen foods include options for breakfast, lunch or dinner, snacks and desserts. Breakfast options rely upon classic choices, like eggs and lean ham or Canadian bacon. Lunch and dinner choices include a variety of dishes with classic home cooked options, southwestern flavors or Asian inspired dishes. Snacks are lower calorie and may offer an alternative to high fat choices, while desserts limit calories and portion size. Including frozen diet meals like Smart Ones in your diet can help you to stay within your calorie guidelines with smart food choices and portion control.

You can use Smart Ones as the mainstay of your diet, supplementing with fresh fruits, vegetables and low fat or fat free dairy products for adequate calories and nutrition, recommends ABC News' Good Morning America or just have a Smart Ones entree occasionally when there's not time to cook or use them for lunches at the office.

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