Table of Contents
While it may seem like jargon to you, it is the preferred lexicon for scholarly publications. To find an appropriate preparation composition, we mixed the liposomes and siRNA at the ratio I really appreciate not having to immerse myself in a stack of papers to understand some of the real science beyond IF. All these assertions will become clearer as we proceed with the detailed discussion. Your main choices are usually either a 3K, 4K or 5K. Platform - Does NOT have dimmer switch hole. Fakhry, Islamic Occasionalism, London, , pp.
He desires intercourse with His creatures and makes it possible for them to enter into fellowship with Himself through prayer and contemplation and, above all, through the gift of mystical gnosis. He only insists, like Kant, 7 that the philosophers through their rational arguments cannot give any conclusive proof for the spirituality, substantiality, unity, immortality, etc.
His attack on the philosophers on this issue is as incisive and analytic as that of Kant but probably more violent. He actually smashes one by one all the ten arguments which he himself expounds as forcefully as they could be in favour of their thesis. He even joins the philosophers in their refutation of the position of some of the scholastic theologians, who maintained that the soul is a kind of subtle body or an accident and not a substance.
The interesting thing about this conception is that it runs parallel to his conception of God. Soul like God is a unity and like Him it is primarily and essentially a will.
Further, as God is both transcendent to and immanent in the universe so is soul with reference to body. The soul of man is different from everything else in the sensuous world. There are two worlds: Soul belongs to the world of amr also because it proceeds from the command of God: It is the world of amr that rules the created world; the command is the divine force which directs and regulates the world. Thus soul is a spiritual principle which having life in itself vitalizes the body and controls it and regulates it.
Body is the instrument and vehicle of the soul. God is primarily a will and man is akin to God especially in respect of will. Man in himself has the infinite spiritual possibilities and it is through his will that he comes to realize them and thus brings himself close to the mind and will of God till God says: So enter among My servants and enter My garden. Religious Experience and Moral and Intellectual Values.
It is a vital experience which must translate itself into good action. The life of the true mystics is the best life and their character the purest character. In the final analysis the mystics themselves are illumined by the light of the lamp of the prophetic revelation. But what if you were to doubt the prophethood of a prophet? So close is the relation between the inner religious life and the outer moral expression of it that you can move from one back to the other. The authenticity of a prophet can be attested by applying a moral test, that is, by making a close study of his conduct, by assessing the transformations which his creative will has wrought in human history and by evaluating the new socio-politico-legal system that he has introduced and established in a society.
Of the truths of religion, we acquire not a theoretical but a moral certainty: Though the philosophers do not deny the importance of transforming truth values into moral values, ideas into deeds, so far as their theory of prophecy is concerned, yet in pursuance of the dominant Hellenic tradition they seem to hold that knowledge without consequent action has its own intrinsic value. Good deeds are preparatory to correct thinking. The ultimate perfection of the soul consists in God-like contemplation, in a state of pure knowledge which though not without joy is certainly without action.
It is indeed futile to look for any lifeless consistency in his attitudes which make a happy synthesis of voluntarism, pragmatism, and idealism. He concedes, for example, that a prophet is a person endowed with extraordinary intellect which enables him to attain contact with the active intellect, the proximate source of prophetic revelation.
The study of all branches of knowledge and taking the greatest share of most of them is a necessary part of the mystic discipline. Many Sufis remain stuck for years in such figments of imagination, but they certainly would have been saved from these, had they first followed the path of scientific study and acquired by laborious learning as much of the demonstrative sciences as human power could encompass.
The anti-intellectualism or the anti-liberalism of the Muslim community is a highly complex sociological phenomenon and its causes shall have to be explored in a great many areas; it would be too much of an oversimplification of facts to ascribe it to a single name, however great that name may be. Considering, however, the number and complexity of the subjects with which his works deal, the various levels of readers for whom they were written and the fact of his own spiritual development, it is not always possible to reconcile his various views and attitudes and to defend him against all charges of inconsistency.
But it has been pointed out that in his doctrine of the soul he makes it resemble God so closely both in essence and qualities that there remains hardly any difference between the two. If the contingency of the world should be over-emphasized, it becomes nothing more than a show of shadows having no reality or actuality of its own whatsoever.
All actuality is devoured by the being of God. He is that He is: Statements of this kind clearly indicate a sense of complete self-deification.
Call me happy, but ask me no more. But there are some critics 31 who have recently made attempts to belittle the importance of his ethical theory by trying to show that it is entirely, or at least mainly, derived from the Aristotelian and Neo-Platonic doctrines and from the writings of the Muslim philosophers whose systems were Hellenic in spirit.
He was, in fact, against the philosophers and their heretical doctrines. All these assertions will become clearer as we proceed with the detailed discussion. He does not deal with the heroic virtues like courage, etc. So he ought to be told to eradicate these tendencies. The negative side is better and more excellent. After counting the advantages and the disadvantages of both, he ultimately tends to the conclusion that celibacy is better. One may marry, he grants, provided one is at the same time like the unmarried, i.
All this has a colouring of otherworldliness. Avoidance of the world is, however, not put forward as an end-in-itself. The curbing or controlling of passions has been stressed merely to achieve moderation; otherwise he fully knows the psychology of human nature. Similarly, there are the virtues of self-respect, dignity, etc. God is the only creator. God creates in His creature power qudrah and choice ikhtiyar.
He then creates in him action corresponding to the power and choice thus created. So the action of the creature is created by God as to initiative and as to production, but it is acquired by the creature.
It, thus, gives us at the most only a consciousness of freedom, and not freedom in the real sense of the term. On the one hand, God is represented as the disposer of everything. He is the unmoved mover of the material world and the only efficient cause of all creation.
Whatever happens in the heavens or on the earth happens according to a necessary system and a predetermined plan. Not even a leaf can move without His decree; His law is supreme everywhere. This implies complete moral freedom. The heart or the soul of man, according to him, is furnished with two kinds of impressions. Whatever the heart intends, resolves, etc. These impressions or ideas have an inherent tendency to express themselves in overt movements. They have a motive part of their own and are capable of exciting a strong impulse or inclination ra gh bah in the first instance.
These three stages correspond pretty closely to what psychologists call respectively appetite, desire, and wish. Will excites power and then the action comes. The first two stages of this process, viz.
In such a case, man would be free to do what he desires, but the complete control of his desire would be beyond his power. Second is the stage of the sensuous and the psychical world where a relative sort of freedom is recognized. Lastly comes God who is absolutely free.
But His freedom is not like that of a man who arrives at decisions after hesitation and deliberation over different alternatives. This is impossible in the case of God. The path is long and difficult and needs a great deal of patience and perseverance on the part of the seeker. Slowly and steadily, by leading a virtuous life, he has to take his soul towards perfection so that it might be able to attain the knowledge of God and consequently divine love, which is the summum bonum or the Highest Good in this world.
This will lead to the beatific vision in the world to come. He is guided throughout by the gift of God taufiq. Taufiq manifests itself in various forms: It stands for the telling of the moral from the immoral, the good from the bad and the right from the wrong. Unless these distinctions are clearly seen, we cannot be supposed to do any good action or avoid evil. Direction ru sh d. Mere knowledge of good actions might be necessary but is not sufficient for their performance.
We should also have the will to do them. It is the power from God which makes the body obey the will in order to realize the end. It makes circumstances congenial for the actualization of the will.
Helped by God in this way the individual proceeds to exercise virtues which gradually raise the heart higher and higher up towards the ideal. Before taking up this enterprise, however, the soul or the heart is to be subjected to a thorough surgical operation and cleansed of all impurities.
Once the Chinese and the Greeks held a contest on the art of drawing and painting. One part of a big room was given to the Chinese and the other to the Greeks. In between was hung a curtain so that they might not see the work of each other. The Greeks decorated the wall with many rare colours, but the Chinese proceeded to brighten their side and polish it. When the curtain was raised, the beautiful art of the former was reflected on the latter's wall in its original beauty and charm.
Such is the way of the saints who strive for the purification of their heart to make it worthy of the knowledge of God Most High. But what are these impurities and what are they due to? What is that which darkens and casts gloom upon the soul of man? The pious people avoid it and seek loneliness. First, there are those vices which are connected with a particular part of the body. Hunger is one of them. It is, no doubt, a very important biological function and, thus, indispensable for the preservation of life.
But when it transgresses its limits and becomes gluttony, it is the cause of immense evil and disturbance. Verily He loves not the prodigal. It also causes too much sleep which, besides being a wastage of time, slackens the mind; the light of wisdom is dimmed and one becomes unable to differentiate good from evil. Gradually, he becomes oblivious of, and unsympathetic to, the poor and those who have really nothing to eat. So one should eat only as much as is barely sufficient to sustain oneself, out of what one has earned honestly.
The second group of vices belonging to this category are those arising out of the sex instinct. This instinct is supposed to be the most powerful in man, 45 and so are its distractions from the right path.
The sex appetite must always be directed, controlled, and managed by reason and should not be allowed to run wild: But if, in spite of wilful determination, he is not able to control himself', he may marry and then perform all his duties as a husband.
Lastly, we come to the vices of speech, which are many. Talkativeness, using indecent words, ridiculing, abusing, cursing, etc. Similarly, lying is also a heinous sin: We can, for instance, legitimately make use of it as a war tactic. Slandering and talebearing are also very prominent vices of speech. Next, there are vices arising out of self?
When working in its proper limits, this instinct is, no doubt, natural. But the lack or excess of it makes it an evil. A person who has no self?
He is disgracefully meek and silent and dare not make his personality felt. Man is roused to. When not gratified, anger often turns into malice, which consists in the desire that the desired thing should be lost to the possessor also. Sometimes, however, there is no feeling of pain but simply a strong desire that one should also possess a thing like the one the other has. This is known as emulation gh ibtah and is not undesirable.
We can overcome the vices of excessive self-assertion by forbearance, mildness, forgiveness, humility, etc. Anger, malice, and emulation are aroused when man is not in possession of the objects of his desire. Pride and vanity, on the contrary, occur when he has secured such objects. Vanity is a sense of self-admiration. The individual regards his possessions as great, has no fear of losing them, and forgets that they are merely gifts of God.
If he is vain about his intellect, wisdom, and opinion, all development in knowledge ceases and all progress is congealed. A proud man, on the other hand, actively compares himself with others, is rightly or wrongly aware of some religious or worldly perfection in himself, and feels elated and raised above them. He looks down upon them and expects respect from them as a superior. Learned men, worshippers, and devotees are very much prone to this evil.
By this he would come to know that pride becomes God and greatness belongs to Him alone. Further, he should remember his humble beginnings and recognize the filthy stuff he is made of.
Let him consider the origin and end of his forefathers and of the proud persons like Pharaoh and Nimrud who tried to equal God Almighty. Let him consider also that beauty, wealth, and friendship are all transitory and unreliable. Wealth in itself, however, is not bad. It is the use of it that makes it so.
Wealth can be spent on the poor and the needy to alleviate their sufferings, but can also lead directly to sins or can supply means for them. Those who love money often forget God and He, in turn, prepares and reserves for them a painful doom. It can also lead to miserliness, which means not spending even where one is duty-bound to spend. The cure of all these evils is to give away all that is superfluous and keep only as much as is essential for supporting life and getting peace of mind.
We must further be convinced in our hearts that wealth, like shadows, is a transitory affair and that God is sufficient for us and our children. We should hasten to spend when occasion demands, setting aside the checks and hesitations arising within.
Love of position means the desire to win and dominate the hearts of others. Real perfection, however, lies in knowledge and freedom: Just as wealth is allowed if used as a means for some good, so may we win the admiration of those whose help is necessary to realize the ideal. But if position is sought for its own sake, it is a vice and should be eradicated.
One must impress upon oneself that position is not everlasting and that death is a leveller. One should also know that a prominent person creates enemies very easily. The lover of position generally falls into hypocrisy and tries to deceive people that he possesses something which actually he does not.
An individual, for example, may pretend to be a pious man by a thin, lean, neglected body, long prayers, virtuous and humble talk, and so on. This deadly disease must be cured, otherwise all the so-called virtuous actions, the inner spiritual basis being absent, will be entirely useless and unacceptable to God. One must perform all good actions, including the religious observances and acts of worship, in secret.
We may perform them in the open if our sincere intention is that others may also be persuaded thereby to do the same. Love of position also gives rise to self-deception. The individual is convinced that he has something which he really does not have. They are, for example, such religious, devotees as do not have the real sense of values. They do not realize what is more important and what is less important and, by performing the latter, they assume themselves to be exempt from the former.
Instead of helping a hungry neighbour, they would go on pilgrimage to Mecca. Some dress themselves poorly and meekly and think they have become saints thereby. All these persons are deceiving themselves as to the true nature of things. Similar is the case with the Sufis.
Some of them learn only the terminology of the real Sufis and think they are likewise able to see God. Some are always wondering about the power and majesty of God and do nothing more. Some do actually try to cleanse the heart and perform good actions but wrongly think that they have passed most of the stages and are the true lovers of God. They give up the performance of obligatory duties and religious observances. The same is the case with the learned and the rich, who are generally involved in one kind of self-delusion or another.
Repentance belongs to the purgative period of life which is an indispensable prerequisite for the higher stages. It means abandoning the sins of which man is conscious and resolving never to return to them. It is a sort of spiritual conversion. Love of the world, which is the root of all vices, has, however, to be removed first; the passions have to be subjected to a strict control and the devil within has to be turned out.
But, certainly, we do not give up the world for nothing. We do get something in return: He throws a morsel towards it and thus, by distracting its attention, enters and gets his desires from the king.
The dog is like Satan, who prevents him from going towards God, and the morsel of bread is like the world by the sacrifice of which we can get something better. This brings us to the virtue of abstinence zuhd. Repentance is simply turning away from something, whereas abstihence includes turning away from as well as towards something better and more excellent. Abstinence can, in fact, have three grades. We might be inspired and motivated by the love of God itself, by the hope of reward, or by the fear of punishment.
The highest grade is the love of God which makes us sacrifice all considerations of heaven and hell for the sake of God. This is absolute abstinence zuhd al-mutlaq.
We are reminded here of the fable of a saint who was carrying in one hand a flame and in the other a glass of water with the alleged purpose of burning heaven with the one and quenching the fire of hell with the other, so that everyone acts sincerely to attain nearness to God.
So poverty is to be wilfully cultivated. The faqars are of various kinds: The first of these, i. The zahid is the one who, being busy in enjoying the love of God, is indifferent to all worldly losses and gains. All the virtues considered above-repentance, abstinence, poverty-demand an immense amount of courage and steadfastness.
They are not possible to attain without unswerving passion, which is doubly more difficult to cultivate, impatience being in the very nature of man.
If a man wrongs us, we may pay him back in the same coin; if he strikes us, we can strike him too though forgiveness is also commendable. Patience in the real sense of the term has three grades: The last grade is the noblest. Gratitude sh ukr too is a necessary virtue and also so difficult that only a few can exercise it. If one is pleased with the gift only, without any reference to the Giver, it is no gratitude: This is gratitude, no doubt, but of a low variety.
The highest stage is reached when we are pleased with the Giver and determine to use His gift in order to attain greater. After repentance from sin and successful renunciation of the world, the individual directs his attention towards his own self with a view to making it submissive and obedient to the will of God.
The process has various steps and stages: We have constantly to keep a vigilant eye on our thoughts and actions and check ourselves at every step. Such a conviction creates in the soul an all-pervading reverence for God. Single-mindedness i kh las is the fruit of the self thoroughly mastered and trained.
A fashioned soul has only one motive force, and that is the desire for nearness to God; the lesser purposes are weeded out. Single-mindedness leads to the virtue of truthfulness sidq. Truthfulness is there in words, intentions, and actions. Truthfulness in words consists in making a statement which is unequivocal and clear and is not aimed at deceiving others.
We can, however, in some cases make ambiguous and false statements if thereby we are aiming at the betterment of society. Such special cases may be war tactics, restoration of happy relations between husband and wife, amity among Muslims, and so on. Further, our intention must be rightful and true.
The right direction of intention is very important because actions are judged only by intentions Lastly, truthfulness in actions lies in the fact that the inward state of a person is literally translated into outward behaviour without any tinge of hypocrisy.
The highest truthfulness which is at the same time most difficult to attain is the complete realization of the various attitudes of the soul towards God, e. Fear may be of the wrath and the awe-inspiring attributes of God, or it may be produced in man by the consciousness of his guilt and the apprehension of divine displeasure. A nobler kind of fear is aroused by the feeling of separation from God who is the ultimate goal of all our aspirations.
Hope, on the other hand, is a pleasant tendency. It consists in the expectation, after the individual has tried his best, of the divine love in the world and of the beatific vision in the hereafter.
Fear is the result of knowledge-the knowledge of our infirmity as compared with the supremacy of our ideal: It lies at a higher plane because it strengthens love and enables man to realize the goal. Those who profess belief in unification may be classified into three groups: The last stage is the highest. The servant no longer finds his own powers and personality to be self-sufficient and has allowed God to dominate his life.
The moral soldier who is sincerely set upon his task must also form the habit of meditation and reflection. He has to reflect on the works of God, on the alternation of day and night, on the waxing and waning of the moon, on the rise and fall of nations, and on the general management of this cosmological scheme. For that purpose seclusion away from the active hustle and bustle of society is very necessary. A heart preoccupied with worldly things has no place for the knowledge of God.
Today many people are familiar with this puzzle and its solution. In the s, however, very few were even aware of its existence, even though it had been around for almost a century. If you have tried solving this puzzle, you can confirm that your first attempts usually involve sketching lines inside the imaginary square. The correct solution, however, requires you to draw lines that extend beyond the area defined by the dots.
Only 20 percent managed to break out of the illusory confinement and continue their lines in the white space surrounding the dots. The symmetry, the beautiful simplicity of the solution, and the fact that 80 percent of the participants were effectively blinded by the boundaries of the square led Guilford and the readers of his books to leap to the sweeping conclusion that creativity requires you to go outside the box.
The idea went viral via s-era media and word of mouth, of course. Overnight, it seemed that creativity gurus everywhere were teaching managers how to think outside the box. Management consultants in the s and s even used this puzzle when making sales pitches to prospective clients. Because the solution is, in hindsight, deceptively simple, clients tended to admit they should have thought of it themselves.
Or so their consultants would have them believe. There seemed to be no end to the insights that could be offered under the banner of thinking outside the box. Speakers, trainers, training program developers, organizational consultants, and university professors all had much to say about the vast benefits of outside-the-box thinking.
It was an appealing and apparently convincing message. Indeed, the concept enjoyed such strong popularity and intuitive appeal that no one bothered to check the facts. No one, that is, before two different research teams —Clarke Burnham with Kenneth Davis, and Joseph Alba with Robert Weisberg—ran another experiment using the same puzzle but a different research procedure. Both teams followed the same protocol of dividing participants into two groups.
The second group was told that the solution required the lines to be drawn outside the imaginary box bordering the dot array. Would you like to guess the percentage of the participants in the second group who solved the puzzle correctly?
Most people assume that 60 percent to 90 percent of the group given the clue would solve the puzzle easily. In fact, only a meager 25 percent did. In other words, the difference could easily be due to what statisticians call sampling error. Solving this problem requires people to literally think outside the box.
That is, direct and explicit instructions to think outside the box did not help. That this advice is useless when actually trying to solve a problem involving a real box should effectively have killed off the much widely disseminated—and therefore, much more dangerous—metaphor that out-of-the-box thinking spurs creativity. After all, with one simple yet brilliant experiment, researchers had proven that the conceptual link between thinking outside the box and creativity was a myth.
But you will find numerous situations where a creative breakthrough is staring you in the face. They are much more common than you probably think. There are many theories of creativity. What the latest experiment proves is not that creativity lacks any association to thinking outside-the-box, but that such is not conditioned by acquired knowledge, i.
For example, there have been some theories such as those of Schopenhauer see his remarks about Genius and Freud see his remarks about Sublimation that propose creativity is something more like a capacity provided by nature rather than one acquired or learned from the environment.
Rather than disproving the myth, in other words, the experiment might instead offer evidence that creativity is an ability that one is born with, or born lacking, hence why information from the environment didn't impact the results at all. It's an interesting experiment, but the author's conclusion cannot possibly follow from the results of it. Call or send text: In the past several decades there has been a revolution in computing and communications, and all indications are that technological development and use of information and facts technology will carry on at a speedy rate.
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