The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 6: As with most supplements, each person has their own genetic "preset" amount of creatine they can hold. A systematic review with meta-analyses". Elevated Glucose and Liver Enzymes. National Review of Medicine.
Additionally, in most muscles, the ATP regeneration capacity of CK is very high and is therefore not a limiting factor. Genetic deficiencies in the creatine biosynthetic pathway lead to various severe neurological defects. Deficiencies in the two synthesis enzymes can cause L-arginine: Both biosynthetic defects are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. A third defect, creatine transporter defect , is caused by mutations in SLC6A8 and inherited in a X-linked manner.
This condition is related to the transport of creatine into the brain. Such a reaction happens when grilling or pan-frying meat. Use of creatine by healthy adults in normal dosages does not harm kidneys; its effects on the kidney in elderly people and adolescents were not well understood as of People with kidney disease, high blood pressure, or liver disease should not take creatine as a dietary supplement.
One well-documented effect of creatine supplementation is weight gain within the first week of the supplement schedule, likely attributable to greater water retention due to the increased muscle creatine concentrations. A systematic review discredited concerns that creatine supplementation could affect hydration status and heat tolerance and lead to muscle cramping and diarrhea. Creatine taken with medications that can harm the kidney can increase the risk of kidney damage: Creatine has a fairly short elimination half-life, averaging just less than 3 hours, so to maintain an elevated plasma level it would be necessary to take small oral doses every 3—6 hours throughout the day.
As with most supplements, each person has their own genetic "preset" amount of creatine they can hold. The rest is eliminated as waste. Creatine supplementation appears to increase the number of myonuclei that satellite cells will 'donate' to damaged muscle fibers , which increases the potential for growth of those fibers. This increase in myonuclei probably stems from creatine's ability to increase levels of the myogenic transcription factor MRF4.
Creatine supplements are marketed in ethyl ester , gluconate , monohydrate , and nitrate forms. The most prevalent of these contaminants was creatinine , a breakdown product of creatine also produced by the body. Heavy metals contamination was not found to be a concern, with only minor levels of mercury being detectable.
Two studies reviewed in found no impurities. In , Harvard University researchers Otto Folin and Willey Glover Denis found evidence that ingesting creatine can dramatically boost the creatine content of the muscle.
The substance creatine is naturally formed in vertebrates. While creatine's influence on physical performance has been well documented since the early twentieth century, it came into public view following the Olympics in Barcelona. An August 7, article in The Times reported that Linford Christie , the gold medal winner at meters, had used creatine before the Olympics.
An article in Bodybuilding Monthly named Sally Gunnell , who was the gold medalist in the meter hurdles, as another creatine user. In addition, The Times also noted that meter hurdler Colin Jackson began taking creatine before the Olympics. At the time, low-potency creatine supplements were available in Britain, but creatine supplements designed for strength enhancement were not commercially available until when a company called Experimental and Applied Sciences EAS introduced the compound to the sports nutrition market under the name Phosphagen.
It is ineffective as a treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A meta-analysis found that creatine treatment increased muscle strength in muscular dystrophies, and potentially improved functional performance. Creatine's impact on mitochondrial function has led to research on its efficacy and safety for slowing Parkinson's disease.
As of , the evidence did not provide a reliable foundation for treatment decisions, due to risk of bias, small sample sizes, and the short duration of trials.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 12 September Not to be confused with creatinine. N -Carbamimidoyl- N -methylglycine; Methylguanidoacetic acid. Interactive image Interactive image. Std molar entropy S o Stout, Jose Antonio, Douglas Kalman, eds. Essentials of Creatine in Sports and Health. Metabolism and Possible Interactions". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry.
The process of creatine synthesis occurs in two steps, catalyzed by L-arginine: The apparent dissociation constants of creatine and creatinine" PDF. Stout, Jose Antonio, Douglas Kalman. Uses authors parameter link CS1 maint: Salomons, Markus Wyss, eds. Creatine and Creatine Kinase in Health and Disease.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Synthesis predominately occurs in the liver, kidneys, and to a lesser extent in the pancreas. Creatine synthesized in liver must be secreted into the bloodstream by an unknown mechanism Da Silva et al.
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Retrieved 23 August National Library of Medicine. When these enzymes enter the bloodstream at higher than normal amounts, they are said to be elevated. Because the liver's functions effect every part of the body, inflammation in this organ may cause stomachache, nausea and vomiting. Your doctor can determine the cause of liver distress with the help of blood tests and a comprehensive health history.
Loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea and stomach pain could be the flu, but if your liver enzymes are elevated it could be a case of hepatitis A. The hepatitis A virus also typically causes jaundice. It is spread by fecal-oral contamination, a result of poor bathroom hygiene or food contamination. The virus is shed in the stool of infected persons. Hepatitis A is a self-limiting disorder; you may need only rest and plenty of fluids to get over it. Infection with the hepatitis B or C viruses may cause chronic illness and damage to the liver that occurs over time.
The Illinois Department of Public Health reports that hepatitis C is spread by blood, putting health care workers, IV drug users and those who received blood transfusions prior to at highest risk. Hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccines. A healthy liver aids the digestion of fats and proteins, regulates sex hormones, breaks down toxins in the bloodstream and removes excess red blood cells.
Chronic alcohol abuse taxes the liver, causing accumulation of fatty deposits, which become inflamed, leading to alcoholic hepatitis. The American Liver Foundation states that 35 percent of heavy drinkers develop this condition. If drinking continues, healthy liver tissue is gradually replaced by non-functioning scar tissue, a process known as cirrhosis. Abdominal swelling and tenderness, loss of appetite and nausea may characterize alcoholic liver disease.
Obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes are risk factors for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The disorder generally follows the same course as alcoholic liver disease, however patients may be non-drinkers.