Type 2 Diabetes: The Basics

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Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms, Signs, Diet, and Treatment
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state , diabetic ketoacidosis , heart disease , strokes , diabetic retinopathy , kidney failure , amputations [1] [4] [5]. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next two hours. This content does not have an Arabic version. Gardner DG, et al. When they reach their ideal weight, their body's own insulin and a healthy diet can control their blood sugar level.

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Diabetes mellitus type 2

People with insulin resistance often have a group of conditions including high blood glucose, extra fat around the waist, high blood pressure , and high cholesterol and triglycerides.

Too much glucose from your liver. When your blood sugar is low, your liver makes and sends out glucose. After you eat, your blood sugar goes up, and usually the liver will slow down and store its glucose for later. But some people's livers don't. They keep cranking out sugar. Bad communication between cells. Sometimes cells send the wrong signals or don't pick up messages correctly.

When these problems affect how your cells make and use insulin or glucose, a chain reaction can lead to diabetes. If the cells that make the insulin send out the wrong amount of insulin at the wrong time, your blood sugar gets thrown off. High blood glucose can damage these cells, too. While certain things make getting diabetes more likely, they won't give you the disease. But the more that apply to you, the higher your chances of getting it are.

Other risk factors have to do with your daily habits and lifestyle. These are the ones you can really do something about. Because you can't change what happened in the past, focus on what you can do now and going forward.

Take medications and follow your doctor's suggestions to be healthy. Simple changes at home can make a big difference, too. Moving muscles use insulin. Thirty minutes of brisk walking a day will cut your risk by almost a third.

Avoid highly processed carbs, sugary drinks, and trans and saturated fats. Limit red and processed meats. Work with your doctor to avoid gaining weight, so you don't create one problem by solving another. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be so mild you don't notice them. In fact, about 8 million people who have it don't know it. Your doctor can test your blood for signs of diabetes.

Usually doctors will test you on two different days to confirm the diagnosis. But if your blood glucose is very high or you have a lot of symptoms, one test may be all you need. This measures your blood sugar on an empty stomach. You won't be able to eat or drink anything except water for 8 hours before the test. Oral glucose tolerance test OGTT: This checks your blood glucose before and 2 hours after you drink a sweet drink to see how your body handles the sugar.

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