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They are basically all due to the same inflammatory process. Fish reproduction and Spawn biology. Archived from the original on The converse is also true. Most people tend to have the coldest body temperature in the mornings, and gradually warming up during the afternoon and evening. The two current orders comprise around species. In numerous cases, a 'Healthy Living' dish may actually contain more saturated fat than a 'Saver' or budget version of the same dish.

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For example, groups of Humboldt squid hunt cooperatively, using active communication. In females, the ink sac is hidden from view by a pair of white nidamental glands , which lie anterior to the gills. Also, red-spotted accessory nidamental glands are present. Both organs are associated with nutrient manufacture and shells for the eggs. Females also have a large translucent ovary , situated towards the posterior of the visceral mass. Males do not possess these organs, but instead have a large testis in place of the ovary, and a spermatophoric gland and sac.

In mature males, this sac may contain spermatophores , which are placed inside the female's mantle during mating. Like all cephalopods, squid have complex digestive systems. The muscular stomach is found roughly in the midpoint of the visceral mass. From there, the bolus moves into the caecum for digestion. The caecum, a long, white organ, is found next to the ovary or testis. In mature squid, more priority is given to reproduction such that the stomach and caecum often shrivel up during the later life stages.

Finally, food goes to the liver or digestive gland , found at the siphon end, for absorption. Solid waste is passed out of the rectum. Beside the rectum is the ink sac, which allows a squid to rapidly discharge black ink into the mantle cavity. Squid have three hearts. Two branchial hearts feed the gills, each surrounding the larger systemic heart that pumps blood around the body.

Squid blood contains the copper-rich protein hemocyanin for transporting oxygen. The faintly greenish hearts are surrounded by the renal sacs — the main excretory system.

The kidneys are difficult to identify and stretch from the hearts located at the posterior side of the ink sac to the liver. The systemic heart is made of three chambers, a lower ventricle and two upper auricles. The head end bears eight arms and two tentacles, each a form of muscular hydrostat containing many suckers along the edge.

These tentacles do not grow back if severed. In the mature male, one basal half of the left ventral tentacle is hectocotylised — and ends in a copulatory pad rather than suckers. It is used for sexual intercourse.

The mouth is equipped with a sharp, horny beak mainly made of chitin [7] and cross-linked proteins , and is used to kill and tear prey into manageable pieces. The beak is very robust, but does not contain minerals, unlike the teeth and jaws of many other organisms, including marine species. The mouth contains the radula the rough tongue common to all molluscs except bivalvia. The eyes, on either side of the head, each contain a hard lens.

The image is focused by changing the position of the lens, as in a camera or telescope , rather than changing the shape of the lens, as in the human eye. Squid appear to have limited hearing. In , sharp, curved claws on the suction cups of squid tentacles cut up the rubber coating on the hull of the USS Stein. The size suggested the largest squid known at the time. In , a large specimen of an abundant [12] but poorly understood species, Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni the colossal squid , was discovered.

The kraken is a legendary tentacled monster possibly based on sightings of real giant squid. Doctors can also attempt to remove gallstones during an ERCP. During the procedure an instrument is inserted through the endoscope to attempt removal of the stone. While these therapies may work for some, all of the above nonsurgical therapies are usually unsuccessful long term since recurrence is common and are rarely advised in clinical practice.

While the gallbladder serves an important function, it is not essential for a normal, healthy life. When gallstones are persistently troublesome, doctors often recommend removing the organ entirely. This operation is considered among the safest of all surgical procedures. Each year approximately , Americans have their gallbladder removed. It is also the only treatment method that eliminates the possibility that other gallstones will develop in the future.

When the gallbladder has been removed, bile flows directly from the liver into the small intestine, and this sometimes leads to diarrhea. Because bile no longer accumulates in the gallbladder, quantities of the digestive fluid cannot be stored up and used to break down an especially fatty meal.

This condition is not considered serious, however, and can be corrected by simply limiting fat in the diet. In the past, removal of the gallbladder was done through traditional "open" surgery, which requires surgeons to make a large incision in the abdomen.

Patients faced a two- or three-day hospital stay plus several weeks of recovery at home. Today, however, the most commonly used surgical technique is a much simpler approach known as laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

The doctor makes several small incisions in the abdomen, then uses special pencil-thin instruments to remove the gallbladder. A tiny microscope and video camera, snaked through the incision to the site, allow the surgeon to view the operation. Laparoscopic surgery is highly effective and very safe. However, freshwater fish seem particularly threatened because they often live in relatively small water bodies. Overfishing is a major threat to edible fish such as cod and tuna.

Such commercial extinction does not mean that the species is extinct, merely that it can no longer sustain a fishery. One well-studied example of fishery collapse is the Pacific sardine Sadinops sagax caerulues fishery off the California coast. The main tension between fisheries science and the fishing industry is that the two groups have different views on the resiliency of fisheries to intensive fishing. In places such as Scotland, Newfoundland, and Alaska the fishing industry is a major employer, so governments are predisposed to support it.

A key stress on both freshwater and marine ecosystems is habitat degradation including water pollution , the building of dams, removal of water for use by humans, and the introduction of exotic species. Introduction of non-native species has occurred in many habitats. One of the best studied examples is the introduction of Nile perch into Lake Victoria in the s.

Nile perch gradually exterminated the lake's endemic cichlid species. Some of them survive now in captive breeding programmes, but others are probably extinct. Throughout history, humans have utilized fish as a food source. Historically and today, most fish protein has come by means of catching wild fish. However, aquaculture, or fish farming, which has been practiced since about 3, BCE. Overall, about one-sixth of the world's protein is estimated to be provided by fish.

In a similar manner, fish have been tied to trade. Catching fish for the purpose of food or sport is known as fishing , while the organized effort by humans to catch fish is called a fishery. Fisheries are a huge global business and provide income for millions of people. However, the term fishery is broadly applied, and includes more organisms than just fish, such as mollusks and crustaceans , which are often called "fish" when used as food. Fish have been recognized as a source of beauty for almost as long as used for food, appearing in cave art , being raised as ornamental fish in ponds, and displayed in aquariums in homes, offices, or public settings.

Recreational fishing is fishing for pleasure or competition; it can be contrasted with commercial fishing , which is fishing for profit. The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rod , reel , line , hooks and any one of a wide range of baits. Angling is a method of fishing, specifically the practice of catching fish by means of an "angle" hook. Anglers must select the right hook, cast accurately, and retrieve at the right speed while considering water and weather conditions, species, fish response, time of the day, and other factors.

Fish themes have symbolic significance in many religions. In ancient Mesopotamia , fish offerings were made to the gods from the very earliest times. In the Book of Jonah , a work of Jewish literature probably written in the fourth century BC, the central figure, a prophet named Jonah , is swallowed by a giant fish after being thrown overboard by the crew of the ship he is travelling on.

In the dhamma of Buddhism , the fish symbolize happiness as they have complete freedom of movement in the water. Often drawn in the form of carp which are regarded in the Orient as sacred on account of their elegant beauty, size and life-span. The astrological symbol Pisces is based on a constellation of the same name , but there is also a second fish constellation in the night sky, Piscis Austrinus.

Fish feature prominently in art and literature, in movies such as Finding Nemo and books such as The Old Man and the Sea. Large fish, particularly sharks, have frequently been the subject of horror movies and thrillers , most notably the novel Jaws , which spawned a series of films of the same name that in turn inspired similar films or parodies such as Shark Tale and Snakehead Terror.

Piranhas are shown in a similar light to sharks in films such as Piranha ; however, contrary to popular belief, the red-bellied piranha is actually a generally timid scavenger species that is unlikely to harm humans. Though often used interchangeably, in biology these words have different meanings. Fish is used as a singular noun, or as a plural to describe multiple individuals from a single species. Fishes is used to describe different species or species groups. But if the pond contained a total of fish from three different species, it would be said to contain three fishes.

The distinction is similar to that between people and peoples. A random assemblage of fish merely using some localised resource such as food or nesting sites is known simply as an aggregation. When fish come together in an interactive, social grouping, then they may be forming either a shoal or a school depending on the degree of organisation.

A shoal is a loosely organised group where each fish swims and forages independently but is attracted to other members of the group and adjusts its behaviour, such as swimming speed, so that it remains close to the other members of the group.

Schools of fish are much more tightly organised, synchronising their swimming so that all fish move at the same speed and in the same direction. Shoaling and schooling behaviour is believed to provide a variety of advantages. While the words "school" and "shoal" have different meanings within biology, the distinctions are often ignored by non-specialists who treat the words as synonyms. Thus speakers of British English commonly use "shoal" to describe any grouping of fish, and speakers of American English commonly use "school" just as loosely.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For fish as eaten by humans, see Fish as food. For other uses, see Fish disambiguation.

For the similar monophyletic clade, see Vertebrata. Giant grouper swimming among schools of other fish. Head-on view of a red lionfish. Fish anatomy and Fish physiology. Fish reproduction and Spawn biology.

Egg of bullhead shark. Fish diseases and parasites. Environmental impact of fishing. Fishing industry , Aquaculture , and Fish farming. Fishkeeping , Recreational fishing , and Angling. For a topical guide to sharks, see Outline of sharks. Angling sport fishing Aquaculture Aquarium Catch and release Deep sea fish Fish acute toxicity syndrome Fish anatomy Fish as food Fish development Fishing fishing for food Fish intelligence Fishkeeping Forage fish Ichthyology List of fish common names List of fish families Marine biology Marine vertebrates Mercury in fish Otolith Bone used for determining the age of a fish Pregnancy fish Seafood Walking fish.

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