Worked pretty well for me, and helped adjust soil to increase acidity where I needed it. Jaap van der Meer Speakers: So I see the handwriting on the wall and I am not going to count on what they promise. Dodgers close to acquiring Brian Dozier. Global Operations, Lessons Learned. Cedar is resistant to rot and insects.
People waited for hours to get in, and McPherson could hardly reach the pulpit without stepping on someone. Rather than touring the United States to preach her sermons, McPherson stayed in Los Angeles , drawing audiences from a population which had soared from , in to , people in , and often included many visitors.
Wearied by constant traveling and having nowhere to raise a family, McPherson had settled in Los Angeles, where she maintained both a home and a church. McPherson believed that by creating a church in Los Angeles, her audience would come to her from all over the country.
This, she felt, would allow her to plant seeds of the Gospel and tourists would take it home to their communities, still reaching the masses. For several years, she continued to travel and raise money for the construction of a large, domed church building at Glendale Blvd.
The church would be named Angelus Temple , reflecting the Roman Catholic tradition of the Angelus bell , calling the faithful to prayer, as well as its reference to the angels.
McPherson began a campaign in earnest and was able to mobilize diverse groups of people to help fund and build the new church. In exchange, "chair-holders" got a miniature chair and encouragement to pray daily for the person who would eventually sit in that chair.
Her approach worked to generate enthusiastic giving and to create a sense of ownership and family among the contributors. Raising more money than she had hoped, McPherson altered the original plans, and built a " megachurch " that would draw many followers throughout the years. However, this price was low for a structure of its size. Costs were kept down by donations of building materials and volunteer labor. McPherson intended the Angelus Temple as both a place of worship and an ecumenical center for persons of all Christian faiths to meet and build alliances.
A wide range of clergy and laypeople consisted of Methodists , Baptists , the Salvation Army , Presbyterians , Episcopalians , Adventists , Quakers , Roman Catholics , Mormons , and even secular civic leaders, who came to the Angelus Temple. They were welcomed and many made their way to her podium as guest speakers. Shuler , a once-robust McPherson critic, was featured as a guest preacher.
Because Pentecostalism was not popular in the United States during the s, McPherson avoided the label. She practiced speaking-in-tongues and faith healing within her services, but kept the former to a minimum in sermons to appease mainstream audiences. Discarded medical fittings from persons faith-healed during her services, which included crutches, wheelchairs, and other paraphernalia, were gathered for display in a museum area.
As evidence of her early influence by the Salvation Army, McPherson adopted a theme of "lighthouses" for the satellite churches, referring to the parent church as the "Salvation Navy". This was the beginning of McPherson working to plant Foursquare Gospel churches around the country. McPherson strove to develop a church organization which could not only provide for the spiritual, but also the physical needs of the distressed. Though she fervently believed and preached the imminent return of Jesus Christ,  she had no idea of how soon that Second Coming might be.
Two thoughts pervaded the mind of most devout Pentecostals of the time, " Jesus is coming, therefore how can I get ready," and "how can I help others to get ready? For McPherson, part of the answer was to mobilize her Temple congregation and everyone she could reach through radio, telephone, and word of mouth to get involved in substantial amounts of charity and social work.
The Charities and Beneficiary Department collected donations for all types of humanitarian relief to include a Japanese disaster, as well as a German relief fund. Men released from prison were found jobs by a "brotherhood". A "sisterhood" was created, as well, sewing baby clothing for impoverished mothers. Even people who considered McPherson's theology almost ridiculous helped out because they saw her church as the best way to assist their community.
In June , after confirming reports of an earthquake in Santa Barbara , McPherson immediately left the parsonage and interrupted a broadcast at a nearby radio station.
She took over the microphone from the startled singer and requested food, blankets, clothing, or whatever listeners could give for emergency supplies to assist nearby Santa Barbara. As the Red Cross met to discuss and organize aid, McPherson's second convoy had already arrived at the troubled city. McPherson quickly arranged for volunteers to be on the scene with blankets, coffee, and doughnuts.
Drawing from her childhood experience with the Salvation Army, in , McPherson opened a commissary at Angelus Temple which was virtually the only place in town a person could get food, clothing, and blankets with no questions asked.
It was open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and became active in creating soup kitchens, free clinics, and other charitable activities as the Great Depression wore on. She fed an estimated 1. When the government shut down the free school-lunch program, McPherson took it over. Her policy of giving first and investigating afterward "alleviated suffering on an epic scale".
McPherson got the fire and police departments to assist in distribution. Doctors, physicians, and dentists were persuaded to staff her free clinic that trained nurses to help treat children and the elderly. She encouraged individuals and companies of all types to donate supplies, food, cash, or labor. Many people, who otherwise would have nothing to do with the Angelus Temple, would receive a call from McPherson, and then loot their mansion closets or company stores for something to give.
The Yellow Cab Company donated a large building and, in the first month, 80, people received meals there. Laboring under a sign "Everybody and anybody is somebody to Jesus", volunteer workers filled commissary baskets with an assortment of food and other items, as well as Foursquare Gospel literature, and handed them out. Even a complete kit designed to care for newborn babies was available. A reporter wrote he had always thought the breadline was a "drab colorless scar on our civilization", but of the Angelus Temple commissary, he observed, was "the warm garment of sympathy and Christian succor.
Establishing an employment bureau, as well, McPherson desired to help "the discouraged husband, the despondent widow, or the little mother who wants extra work to bear the burden of a sick husband". We are all one in the eyes of the Lord. In , the commissary was raided by police to allegedly locate a still used to make brandy out of donated apricots. Some sauerkraut and salad oil were purportedly observed leaking from their respective storage areas.
As a consequence, the commissary was briefly shut down. The press got involved and the public demanded an investigation. Since no one really wanted to stall the temple's charity efforts, the acceptable solution was to replace the immediate management.
The newspaper media, generally cynical of the Temple and in particular, of McPherson, recognized "the excellent features of that organization's efforts" and "the faults of the Angelus Temple are outweighed by its virtues". As McPherson tried to avoid administrative delays in categorizing the "deserving" from the "undeserving", her temple commissary became known as one of the region's most effective and inclusive aid institutions.
Few soup kitchens lasted more than several months, but McPherson's remained open. Because her programs aided nonresidents, as well, such as migrants from other states and Mexico, she ran afoul of California state regulations. Though temple guidelines were later officially adjusted to accommodate those policies, helping families in need was a priority, regardless of their place of residence. This was all during the height of the Depression, when hunger and poverty permeated America.
Many Mexicans were terrified of appealing for county help because most of them were in the country illegally. When in distress, they were comforted by the fact that they could call one of Aimee's branches at any time of the night.
There, they would never be asked any of the embarrassing questions posed by the authorities. The fact that they were hungry or in need of warm clothing was enough. No one even asked if they belonged to Aimee's church or not. In August and away from Los Angeles, McPherson decided to charter a plane so she would not miss giving her Sunday sermon. Aware of the opportunity for publicity, she arranged for at least followers and members of the press to be present at the airport.
The plane failed after takeoff and the landing gear collapsed, sending the nose of the plane into the ground. McPherson boarded another plane and used the experience as the narrative of an illustrated Sunday sermon called "The Heavenly Airplane".
In this sermon, McPherson described how the first plane had the devil for the pilot, sin for the engine, and temptation as the propeller. The other plane, however, was piloted by Jesus and would lead one to the Holy City the skyline shown on stage. The temple was filled beyond capacity. On another occasion, she described being pulled over by a police officer, calling the sermon "Arrested for Speeding ".
Dressed in a traffic cop's uniform, she sat in the saddle of a police motorcycle, earlier placed on the stage, and revved the siren. You're speeding to Hell! McPherson employed a small group of artists, electricians, decorators, and carpenters, who built the sets for each Sunday's service.
Religious music was played by an orchestra. McPherson also worked on elaborate sacred operas. Some Hollywood movie stars even assisted with obtaining costumes from local studios. The cast was large, perhaps as many as people, but so elaborate and expensive, it was presented only one time. Rehearsals for the various productions were time-consuming and McPherson "did not tolerate any nonsense. Even though McPherson condemned theater and film as the devil's workshop, its secrets and effects were co-opted.
She became the first woman evangelist to adopt the whole technique of the moving picture star. She wanted a sacred drama that would compete with the excitement of vaudeville and the movies. The message was serious, but the tone more along the lines of a humorous musical comedy.
Animals were frequently incorporated and McPherson, as a once farm girl, knew how to handle them. McPherson gave up to 22 sermons a week and the lavish Sunday night service attracted the largest crowds, extra trolleys and police were needed to help route the traffic through Echo Park to and from Angelus Temple. McPherson preached a conservative gospel, but used progressive methods, taking advantage of radio, movies, and stage acts.
Advocacy for women's rights was on the rise, including women's suffrage through the 19th Amendment. She attracted some women associated with modernism, but others were put off by the contrast between her different theories.
By accepting and using such new media outlets, McPherson helped integrate them into people's daily lives. McPherson used the media to her advantage and became the "first modern celebrity preacher.
The battle between fundamentalists and modernists escalated after World War I , with many modernists seeking less conservative religious faiths. McPherson sought to eradicate modernism and secularism in homes, churches, schools, and communities.
She developed a strong following in what McPherson termed "the Foursquare Gospel" by blending contemporary culture with religious teachings. McPherson was entirely capable of sustaining a protracted intellectual discourse as her Bible students and debate opponents will attest. But she believed in preaching the gospel with simplicity and power, so as to not confuse the message. Her distinct voice and visual descriptions created a crowd excitement "bordering on hysteria.
The appeal of McPherson's 30 or so revival events from to surpassed any touring event of theater or politics ever presented in American history. She broke attendance records recently set by Billy Sunday  and frequently used his temporary tabernacle structures in which to hold some of her meetings.
Her revivals were often standing-room only. One such revival was held in a boxing ring, with the meeting before and after the match. Throughout the boxing event, she walked about with a sign reading "knock out the Devil".
In San Diego, California , the city called in the National Guard and other branches of the armed forces to control a revival crowd of over 30, people. She became one of the most photographed persons of her time. She enjoyed the publicity and quotes on almost every subject were sought from her by journalists. McPherson's ability to draw crowds was also greatly assisted by her apparently successful faith healing presentations.
According to Nancy Barr Mavity, an early McPherson biographer, almost by accident, the evangelist discovered when she laid hands on sick or injured persons, they got well.
Mavity further wrote, describing the healing power "beyond her conscience [sic] control" and "profoundly troubling" however a phenomenon familiar to the psychiatrist although "none the less [sic] mysterious.
During a revival meeting in Corona, Long Island, New York, a young woman in the advanced stages of rheumatoid arthritis was brought to the altar by friends. McPherson would have preferred to pray with her privately. However, the woman insisted upon immediate prayer.
McPherson laid hands on her and prayed. Before the gathered parishioners, the woman walked out of the church without crutches. McPherson's reputation as a faith healer rapidly became known and the sick and injured people came to her by the tens of thousands. The Faith Healing Ministry of Aimee Semple McPherson was extensively written about in the news media and was a large part of her early career legacy.
Scheduled weekly and monthly healing sessions nevertheless remained highly popular with the public until her death in Eventually, McPherson's church evolved into its own denomination and became known as the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel usually referenced as the "Foursquare Church". The term Foursquare represents the Full Gospel theological concept, and refers to the four defining beliefs of Pentecostalism: The four main beliefs were: She began broadcasting on radio in the early s.
On a Sunday morning in April , the Rockridge Radio Station in Oakland CA; offered her some radio time and she became the first woman to preach a sermon over the "wireless telephone. McPherson racially integrated her tent meetings and church services. On one occasion, as a response to McPherson's ministry and Angelus Temple being integrated, Ku Klux Klan members were in attendance, but after the service, hoods and robes were found on the ground in nearby Echo Park.
McPherson traveling about the country holding widely popular revival meetings and filling local churches with converts was one thing, settling permanently into their city caused concern among some local Los Angeles churches. Though she shared many of their fundamentalist beliefs , such as divine inspiration of the Bible, the classical Trinity , virgin birth of Jesus, historical reality of Christ's miracles, bodily resurrection of Christ, and the atoning purpose of his crucifixion; the presentation of lavish sermons, and an effective faith-healing ministry presented by a female divorcee whom thousands adored and about whom newspapers continuously wrote, was unexpected.
Moreover, the Temple, especially the women, had a look and style uniquely theirs. They would emulate McPherson's style and dress, and a distinct Angelus Temple uniform came into existence, a white dress with a navy blue cape thrown over it. Her voice, projected over the powerful state-of-the-art KFSG radio station and heard by hundreds of thousands, became the most recognized in the western United States. Her illustrated sermons attracted criticism from some clergy members because they thought it turned the Gospel message into mundane theater and entertainment.
Divine healing, as McPherson called it, was claimed by many pastors to be a unique dispensation granted only for Apostolic times. Rival radio evangelist Reverend Robert P. Shuler published a pamphlet entitled McPhersonism , which purported that her "most spectacular and advertised program was out of harmony with God's word.
The new developing Assemblies of God denomination, Pentecostal as McPherson was, for a time worked with her, but they encouraged separation from established Protestant faiths. McPherson resisted trends to isolate as a denomination and continued her task of coalition-building among evangelicals.
McPherson worked hard to attain ecumenical vision of the faith, and while she participated in debates, avoided pitched rhetorical battles that divided so many in Christianity. She wanted to work with existing churches on projects and to share with them her visions and beliefs. Ministers trained there were originally intended to go nationally and worldwide to all denominations and share her newly defined "Foursquare Gospel.
McPherson and others, meanwhile, infused them with Pentecostal ideals. By early , McPherson had become one of the most charismatic and influential women and ministers of her time. According to Carey McWilliams, she had become "more than just a household word: McPherson made personal crusades against anything that she felt threatened her Christian ideals, including the drinking of alcohol and teaching evolution in schools. McPherson became a strong supporter of William Jennings Bryan during the Scopes trial , in which John Scopes was tried for illegally teaching evolution at a Dayton, Tennessee , school.
Bryan and McPherson had worked together in the Angelus Temple and they believed Darwinism had undermined students' morality. According to The New Yorker , McPherson said, evolution "is the greatest triumph of Satanic intelligence in 5, years of devilish warfare, against the Hosts of Heaven. It is poisoning the minds of the children of the nation.
While her mother Mildred Kennedy was a registered Democrat, no one was certain of McPherson's registration. She endorsed Herbert Hoover over Franklin D.
Roosevelt , but enthusiastically threw her support behind the latter and his social programs when he was elected into office. She saw in them the possible activities of Communism , which sought to infiltrate labor unions and other organizations. McPherson intensely disliked Communism and its derivatives as they sought to rule without God; their ultimate goal, she believed, was to remove Christianity from the earth.
McPherson's opinion of fascism fared no better; its totalitarian rule was wrongly justified by claiming to represent the power of God. McPherson did not align herself consistently with any broad conservative or liberal political agenda.
Instead, she explained if Christianity occupied a central place in national life, and if the components of God, home, school and government were kept together, everything else would fall into place. It is not accurate to draw a parallel between today's extreme fundamentalist, right-wing Christianity and the style or focus of Sister McPherson.
She related that when Christ returns, the Jews would receive him, their suffering will end, "and they will establish at Jerusalem a kingdom more wonderful than the world has known. The reported kidnapping of Aimee Semple McPherson caused a frenzy in national media and changed her life and the course of her career. After disappearing in May, , she reappeared in Mexico five weeks later, stating she had been held for ransom in a desert shack there.
The subsequent grand-jury inquiries over her reported kidnapping and escape precipitated continued public interest in her future misfortunes.
Soon after arriving, McPherson was nowhere to be found. It was thought she had drowned. Searchers combed the beach and nearby area, but could not locate her body. The Angelus Temple received letters and calls claiming knowledge of McPherson, including demands for ransom. McPherson sightings occurred around the country, often in widely divergent locations many miles apart on the same day. As a precaution, the ransom notes were sent to the police who investigated at least one of them. Mildred Kennedy, though, regarded the messages as hoaxes, believing her daughter dead.
As the Angelus Temple prepared for a memorial service commemorating McPherson's death, Kennedy received a phone call from Douglas, Arizona. Her daughter was alive. The distraught McPherson was resting in a Douglas hospital and related her story to officials. On the beach, May 19, , McPherson said she had been approached by a young couple who wanted prayer for their sick child.
McPherson went with them to their car and was suddenly shoved inside. A cloth, presumably laced with chloroform , was held against her face, causing her to pass out. Eventually, she was moved to an adobe shack far in the desert. Two kidnappers, Steve and Rose,  were her constant companions, with a third unnamed man, occasionally visiting. When at last, all her captors were away on errands, she escaped out a window. She was assisted by the residents and finally taken to adjacent Douglas.
Many Los Angeles area churches were also annoyed. The story received nationwide coverage. Then, speculations, together with alleged witnesses, began to emerge that her disappearance might have been caused by other than the kidnapping event McPherson described. Against the wishes of her mother, who thought the press would continue to unfavorably exploit the story, McPherson decided for vindication and presented her complaint in court.
A grand jury inquiry convened to determine if enough evidence could be found to indict any kidnappers. However, pressured by various influential community groups, the court instead intensely investigated McPherson, her family, and acquaintances to determine if the kidnapping was fabricated. He was known for winning convictions, but six persons he sent to prison were found to be innocent and pardoned by the state governor. The grand jury inquiries were first convened on July 8, , adjourned and reconvened, holding sessions through the summer of accompanied by intense media interest.
The proceedings were supposed to be secret as per California law, though the Los Angeles court spoke about it to the newspapers. McPherson also eschewed secrecy and freely used her radio station to broadcast her side of the story.
Evidence and testimonies were hotly debated by an evenly divided public. On November 3, the case was determined to be moved to jury trial set for mid-January, Along with McPherson and her mother, several other defendants were charged in the inquiry.
If convicted, the counts added up to maximum prison time of 42 years. Various speculations were proffered by the news media and prosecution as to the reason for McPherson's disappearance. The one they settled on most strongly was she ran off with an ex-employee, Kenneth Ormiston. She was accused of staying with him in a California resort town cottage until May The time frame of Ormiston's seaside cottage rental coincided with the first 10 days of her disappearance.
However, a missing three-week period afterwards was not accounted for with any evidence in court by the prosecution. In response, the evangelist maintained all along, without changing anything in her story, that she was taken, held captive by the kidnappers, and escaped as she originally described. As the prosecution tried to break down her story, defense witnesses corroborated her assertions     or McPherson herself demonstrated how the disputed parts were plausible  In contrast, the prosecution's case developed serious credibility issues.
Witnesses changed their testimonies  and evidence often had suspicious origins  or was mishandled while in custody   Finally, on January 2, , Ormiston identified Elizabeth Tovey, a nurse from Seattle, Washington, as his female companion and the woman who stayed with him at the seaside cottage. Regardless of the court's decision, months of unfavorable press reports fixed in much of the public's mind a certainty of McPherson's wrongdoing.
The newspapers had a vested interest in keeping the controversy going, since it generated huge sales. Some supporters thought McPherson should have insisted on the jury trial to clear her name. The grand jury inquiry concluded that while enough evidence did not exist to try her, it did not indicate her story was true with its implication of kidnappers still at large.
McPherson moved on to other projects. In , she published a book about her version of the kidnapping: In the Service of the King: The Story of My Life. Various influential individuals offered their opinions on the inquiry. Shuler stated, "Perhaps the most serious thing about this whole situation is the seeming loyalty of thousands to this leader in the face of her evident and positively proven guilt.
Mencken , noted journalist, satirist, cultural critic, and scholar and an ideological opponent of McPherson, opposite each other in the Scopes "Monkey" trial , also commented.
He wrote that since many of that town's residents acquired their ideas "of the true, the good and the beautiful" from the movies and newspapers, "Los Angeles will remember the testimony against her long after it forgets the testimony that cleared her. Numerous allegations of illicit love affairs  were often directed against McPherson. Suspected lovers generally denied involvement. During the kidnapping grand jury trial, reporters and investigators tried to link him amorously to McPherson.
Alarmed by her rapidly changing style of dress and involvement with Hollywood and its "worldly" lifestyle, in , an Angelus Temple official  hired detectives to shadow McPherson. Through her windows, the detectives frequently saw McPherson staying up until the early morning hours composing songs, drafting sacred operas, and scribbling diagrams of her illustrated sermons. No confirmation of adulterous misconduct,  with perhaps exception of her third marriage as a violation of Church tenets, was ever presented.
McPherson herself, aware of numerous accusations leveled at her throughout her career, responded only to a small fraction of them, conveying the only thing she had time for was "preaching Jesus". Posthumously, unsubstantiated allegations of extramarital affairs continued to emerge, this time by those who stated to have been her partner, claims not mentioned by them or others while she was still alive.
Sinclair stated he worked on a story with McPherson and during one of those times in , the incident purportedly occurred. Sinclair alluded to a sexual dalliance with McPherson one afternoon along with some gin and ginger. Thirty years after her death, another claim by comedian Milton Berle , in a autobiography, alleges a brief affair with the evangelist.
In his book, titled Milton Berle: Biographer Matthew Avery Sutton commented, "Berle, a notorious womanizer whose many tales of scandalous affairs were not always true, claimed to have had sex with McPherson on this and one other occasion", both during a year when McPherson was often ill and bedridden. Sutton noted that Berle's story of a crucifix  in McPherson's bedroom was not consistent with the coolness of Pentecostal-Catholic relations during that era.
She was incapacitated with illness a full five months of that year, and there is no place on her schedule as reported in her publications and church and travel records for the benefit Berle alleged. Besides, Roberta also told Cox, "Mother never did a benefit in her life. She had her own charities". Following her heyday in the s, McPherson carried on with her ministry, but fell out of favor with the press.
They once dubbed her the "miracle worker"  or "miracle woman", reporting extensively on her faith-healing demonstrations, but now were anxious to relay every disturbance in her household to the headlines. Her developing difficulties with her mother, Mildred Kennedy, were starting to take the front page. Yet, McPherson emerged from the kidnapping nationally famous. Believing that talking pictures had the potential to transform Christianity, McPherson explored Hollywood culture and appeared in newsreels alongside other famous individuals such as Mary Pickford , Frances Perkins , and Franklin D.
She lost weight, cut and dyed her hair, began to wear makeup and jewelry, and became stylish and well-attired, leading one critic to determine that McPherson "can out-dress the Hollywood stars". The solicitation of fame, justified to draw audiences to her and hence to Christ, was more than some in her church organization could accept.
They yearned for Sister Aimee "in the old time dress," referring to her previous "trademarked" uniform of a navy cape over a white servant's dress, both purchased inexpensively in bargain basements. Unless parishioners arrived at a service early, frequently they could not get in; all seats were taken. Now that she could afford it, McPherson thought, as well, she wanted her apparel and display to be the best she could present to Jesus.
In early , McPherson immediately set out on a "vindication tour", visiting various cities and taking advantage of the publicity her kidnapping story created to preach the Gospel. She even visited nightclubs, including a famous speakeasy in New York: While McPherson sipped water at her table, Guinan asked if she would speak a few words to the patrons. Delighted, McPherson stood and addressed the jazzed and boozy crowd:. Behind all these beautiful clothes, behind these good times, in the midst of your lovely buildings and shops and pleasures, there is another life.
There is something on the other side. Take Him into your hearts. The unexpected speech that did not judge, and had a conciliatory tone between them and the Divine, earned a thoughtful moment of silence from the crowd, then an applause that went on for much longer than the speech took.
The revelers were invited to hear her preach at the Glad Tidings Tabernacle on 33rd Street. The visits to speakeasies and nightclubs added to McPherson's notoriety; newspapers reported heavily on them, rumors erroneously conveyed she was drinking, smoking and dancing; and her mother along with some other church members, did not understand McPherson's strategy of tearing down barriers between the secular and religious world, between the sinner and the saved.
In an attempt to curtail her daughter's influence and officially transfer more power to herself, Kennedy initiated a staff-member "vote of confidence" against McPherson, but lost. The two had heatedly argued over management policies and McPherson's changing personal dress and appearance. The choir could be replaced;  however, Kennedy's financial and administrative skills had been of crucial importance in growing McPherson's ministry from tent revivals to satellite churches and maintaining its current activities in the Temple.
A series of less able management staff replaced Kennedy, and the Temple became involved in various questionable projects such as hotel building, cemetery plots, and land sales. Accordingly, the Angelus Temple plummeted deep into debt. In response to the difficulties, Kennedy came back in late , but because of continued serious disagreements with McPherson, tendered her resignation on July 29, For 10 months, she was absent from the pulpit, diagnosed, in part, with acute acidosis.
When she gained strength and returned, she introduced with renewed vigor her moving "Attar of Roses" sermon, based on the Song of Solomon, with its Rose of Sharon as the mystical Body of Christ. While journalists attending her Sunday illustrated sermons assumed her language was fit only for slapstick or sentimental entertainment, scholars who have studied her work for Bible students and small prayer groups, found instead the complex discourse of neoplatonic interpretation.
For example, she had hundreds of pages written about the Old Testament book, the Song of Solomon, each "different from one another as snowflakes". The October 10—18, , revival in Boston started out sluggishly and many predicted its failure. A Los Angeles newspaper ran headlines of the flop and expected more of the same in the days to come. On opening night, McPherson spoke to fewer than 5, persons in the 22,seat sports arena, and safety pins and rubber bands abundantly cluttered the collection baskets.
The city had large populations of Unitarians, Episcopalians, and Catholics, venerable denominations traditionally hostile to a Pentecostal or fundamentalist message. Afterwards, from her hotel room, McPherson, known to be a sports fan, asked for the afternoon's World Series scores and a Boston Herald reporter sent her a copy of the Sunday edition.
The next day, the "Bring Back the Bible to Boston" campaign's tone shifted as McPherson took greater control and attendance climbed sharply. A reporter took note of McPherson's stage presence, different from any other evangelist who spoke there, gesturing with her white Bible for effect, as well as preaching. Answering him as to why she presented a dramatic sermon, she stated, "Our God is a dramatic God Elijah on the mountaintop A total of , people attended the meetings, breaking historic attendance records of any nine days of revival services in Boston.
Her revival in New York City was not very fruitful, as her sensationalistic reputation preceded her. The third marriage to David Hutton, rumored romances, and her kidnapping was what its press and citizens wanted to hear about. Therefore, after a brief pause in New York and Washington, D. A full crew of musicians, scene designers, and costumers accompanied McPherson. In this, her last national revival tour, between September and December 20, , two million persons heard sermons.
Many more were reached by 45 radio stations. Aimee's religion is a religion of joy. There is happiness in it.
Her voice is easy to listen to. She does not appeal to the brain and try to hammer religion into the heads of her audience. Rather, she appeals to the hearts of her hearers. She creates an atmosphere that is warming. She is persuasive, rather than forceful; gracious and kindly, rather than compelling.
Fundamentally she takes the whole Bible literally, from cover to cover. Nevertheless, she was not a radical literalist. In an informal meeting with some Harvard students, McPherson told them that Genesis allowed great latitude of interpretation, and that neither she nor the Bible insisted the world was created only 6, years ago.
Thus compelled, McPherson decided to travel and look at the world with new eyes. At one point, it was earlier reported she wanted to study the women's movement in connection with the campaign for the independence of India, and was anxious to have "a chat with Mahatma Gandhi ".
Impressed with Gandhi and his ideas, McPherson thought he might secretly lean towards Christianity, his dedication possibly coming from catching "a glimpse of the cleansing, lifting, strengthening power of the Nazarene".
Other highlights included traversing barefoot, in Myanmar , the lengthy stone path to the Great Pagoda , a gold-covered ft tiered tower enshrining relics of four Buddhas , which caught and reflected the rays of the sun, a "vision of breath-taking glory. I like that but what really makes me the happiest is knocking around my shop, my yard or my house.
The side effects of being an introvert. Also there are the problems with kids and dogs — both of which we have. Great neighborhood schools, easy to run around town to soccer, Scouts, and school events. Nice affordable homes too. David March 16, , 8: Val October 6, , 9: MMM… what if you have kids you need to take to daycare near work?
Kids change things a bit for me too. I am much more selective about the roads I tow my son along with the bike trailer — it has to be either the dead-quiet streets of my immediate neighborhood, or the off-street bike paths that cover the rest of town. On the positive side, however, a 7-mile commute with no extra daycare driving is far below the average..
Rachel April 25, , I figured out a creative way to cut back on the commute with biking and drop my son off at his bus stop. He gets on the bus at 6: The bus stop is downtown, a few blocks from my office. Our house is 2 miles away. So, how to get my son to the bus stop, and still be able to bike to work? The solution was pretty simple once I thought it through — in the morning, I drive my son to the bus stop, with my bike attached to the back of the car 2 miles.
I then park my car at my office and bike home. Get ready for work, etc. So I cut a commuting routine that would have been 8 miles of ridiculous back-and-forth driving to 4 miles driving, 4 miles biking. Chris November 3, , 5: No reason to leave the kids carrier at the day care. Phil October 11, , 3: Val, I took my kids to daycare in a bicycle trailer for years. On the safety side, I did a spot of research before I bought the trailer a Chariot Cougar and the only tests I could find were done by a German road safety lab who determined that kids were actually safer in a trailer than on the back of a bike or tag-a-long.
Dancedancekj October 6, , What if you have two work locations that you spend an equal number of days at? I had the same dilemma when I started my new job last month. Since I had to move for the job anyway, I ultimately decided to live 3 km away from the first work site, then car commute via back roads to the other.
Soon I will look into finding a safe route to cyclocommute the 20 km to my second work site. Chris October 6, , Honestly, I used to think that people who ride bikes are geeks. I currently commute 23 miles each way and have a gas guzzler that gets 16 mpg.
MMM October 6, , 2: You should definitely get a real car.. Think 35 as a bare minimum. My car has 5 comfortable seats and gets 42MPG on average. My construction van carries a table saw, miter saw, large compressor, and about other smaller tools plus lumber. Sometimes just adding a cheap MPG scooter or a motorbike is a money-saver. Chris October 6, , 2: I wish I flew around in a LazyBoy recliner in a comfy climate controlled cockpit.
My last flying gig had me in me in a full pressure suit much like Astronauts wear , in a metal ejection seat no recline btw and terrible climate control, considering the outside temp was routinely C at 70,ft. My own breath exhaling out of a valve consistently caused ice to form on the insides of my windows-sound comfy? Also, my back felt money after doing this for ten hours straight with little ability to stretch and move. MMM October 6, , 3: I fixed my comment to make it a bit more clear.
Slash April 30, , 9: I am in a commuting quandry myself. I may just rent an apartment for 6 months which is 22 miles from work, which would take 32 minutes with traffic each way. However, for the long term, I would like to work closer to work so I can bike. I have a touring bike road bikes irritate the bulging disk in my neck which I love riding.
And I drive a car that has a 3. So you can imagine my need to shorten the commute or dump the Acura…. What would you suggest?
Liz October 6, , I see some commenters have brought up the public transport commute. What is your take on this MMM? I work in central London, England, and those who drive to work are rare. I think the average commute is around an hour door to door, and travelling 50 miles to work by train is not unusual. MMM October 6, , 1: Not everyone has the same options available to them, but I am writing this article to suggest to most that there IS a better world for workers if you make the choice for yourself.
A minute walk or bike ride, to get to a job that is fun and lets you have free time outside of work. If anyone wants this lifestyle, they should continue to fight for it. You are batshit crazy. Move out of the city, dude. It was my worst commute, ever, 1.
I got to hate my fellow man so bad, changing from surface rail to tibe to tube. Liz October 7, , 3: I moved back into the city, about 5 miles from work, so now I cycle or sometimes run — best thing ever.
I was just wondering what others have put more eloquently — if you make use of the time, is it so bad? I agree, there are some crazy commutes out there, your old one sounds pretty bad. London is expensive to operate a car and they have a higher population density than most American cities. It is a mindset to walk minutes to a train or bus to get to work.
It would be more of a health benefit than a time benefit for me since it takes 45 minutes to ride a bike vs 25 minutes by car. There are times I have meetings after work and I need to drive my car to work. I am going to try and do it more. B October 6, , We moved to south Longmont earlier this year. The commute is wonderful. A short ride is a wonderful way to start a day. Plus I get the benefit of smelling Oskar Blues in the morning.
My wife on the other hand still commutes 12miles to Lafayette. I guess half of us commuting is still better than both. On the same note as Brave New World.
I work in a company of 11 people. We are right off of Ken Pratt kind of by Safeway. About Half of the people decided they were going to work here and then bought a house in Boulder or Johnstown. Wow, that is a happy story! Bullseye October 6, , MMM, you have to be the best blogger out there right now, and I read a lot of blogs. Every article is quality, keep up the excellent writing! My commute is exactly 10 miles, and I bike it occasionally, but usually drive.
Would a road bike make a big difference? Or do I just need to suck it up and stop complaining? Trying to talk wife into moving to cheaper area, becoming instantly mortgage free, and implementing this plan sooner!
Regardless of the physics, I am happy, because biking fast is fun. Archon October 12, , 2: I believe that rolling resistance comes into play here, especially if the mountain bike has low pressures to allow for rougher terrain. Googling led me to the following site which apparently does bike tire comparison testing, including rolling resistance:.
The top graph on each page shows data for the 15 best performers, and road tires which take higher pressure by design have about 5 watts less of rolling resistance compared to mountain bike tires. This is just me fudging an approximate average based on those charts. So going from Mountain bike to road bike will save you powering a refrigerator with your legs in addition to moving you from A to B. It may be an interesting experiment for you to increase the pressure in the tires you have now, and see if it becomes easier to ride, as the graphs show rolling resistance decreasing with pressure.
Rolling resistance should also be a consideration with road tires! Tracy October 8, , 9: I used to ride a hybrid bike for a mile commute uphill , then decided to splurge on a road bike… and it makes a huge difference! John October 10, , 1: I just bought my first mountain bike in years after having a road bike for a while.
I spent the last year walking 2 mile every day to work. I rode the bike occasionally but honestly it was too quick for my taste. I would love to be about 10 miles out for a good bike commute. Nat Pearre June 4, , 2: Daniel October 31, , 5: I would also say get some clip in pedals or SPDs as Shimano calls them and some mountain bike style shoes with recessed clips. They take some practice but they are much more power efficient and make cycle commuting a doddle. Erin October 6, , It seems like the best option for me, but the time and money lost is still frustrating.
Move close to work, and I mean now, like this weekend! Send us pictures of your new pad and your lovely walk or bike ride to work. Erin October 6, , 5: Thanks for the reply, MMM! The soul-crushing commuting will come to an end! Thanks for the as always sound advice!
Marcia Frugal Healthy Simple October 7, , 8: One of my engineers drives 70 miles each way, 4 days per week. He fills his gas tank every 2 days, I fill mine every 2 weeks. Physics girl October 6, , 1: I commute about 2 miles on a bike in West Chester, PA. It is fairly hilly, but a pleasant ride. I have had many many comments about safety — do you feel safe?
I generally answer that I feel comfortable that I have taken precautions such as lights and reflectors and that I bike safely. Dee October 6, , 5: The bus is pretty much my favourite reading location.
There are some people who are totally batshit insane about commuting. They drive to the train station, take the train into NYC, take the subway to near the office, and then walk into the office. Some of them take a ferry, which is even more expensive. So they are away from home for about 15 hours per day.
So their kids can go to a nice school! It was a total nightmare. I was away from home for about 13 hours every weekday and it left me exhausted. I guess I could do better but I like having some separation from work. MMM October 6, , 6: They like to go to the private and charter schools further away from home. While you can never fully separate nature vs.
Adrienne October 7, , 8: They learn a lot at home from me and their dad both part-timers. What they get at school is more socialization and learning to work together. We left a 10 out of 10 public school for a 2 out of 10 public school test scores because we wanted a closer school in our new community we just moved to. The school is diverse and has been a positive influence on our kids.
Ah commuting sucks for sure. Our town is very expensive. So, people who work here…many come from the towns nearby. Then a long stretch of highway. To the south is Carpinteria mins , then Ventura, Oxnard, and Camarillo 45 mins to an hour.
These other towns are cheaper, but you will have at least a minute commute each way. The expectation is to have a bigger house, I think. Now we both work in the same area, so it would be nice to be closer. I leave work early every day to pick up my son from school. All so I can work longer hours!! Bullseye October 7, , 6: He drives 15 minutes, takes a ferry across the river, then the MTA train into the city, 1 hr 45 mins each way 48 miles.
When I do my quarterly visit to that office, I sometimes park at his house and do the commute with him…holy crap! Joe Average February 13, , 1: And the kids are the most fun when they are young. Not as much as these mega-commuters though. Retirement is nice but I value some time in my younger years to enjoy the simple things too like playing with our kids, dog, and little family excursions to the park or grocery store.
Yabusame October 7, , 7: Until 2 years ago, I had a 2 mile commute on my bike. So, I had 4 trips of 2 miles each day on my mountain bike. Some steep hills in between too, but when I switched my knobbly mountain tyres to road tyres things were a lot easier. Handy for stepson to walk to school, less than 1 mile. Unfortunately, that left me with an 11 mile commute.
I used to do it in the car and it would take about 45 minutes each way. I sold the car and now use a motorbike that takes 25 minutes instead plus its time I consider to be fun! I sometimes take the bus to work, but because it has to go via the bus station in the city it means two buses and 1 hour to get to work. I have cycled to work, but the safe cycle distance is closer to 13 miles and my bicycle was suffering on that so was I.
I know my bank account is healthier for it too. C40 October 7, , 8: Before — 33 mile commute. I live in the far north and on bad winter days it took 1 hour each way.
This includes transportation costs plus other savings like lower rent, cheaper internet service, etc. When I calculate my real hourly work rate, ala YMOYL which also accounts for commute time , the move got me a huge hourly raise.
David Baillieul October 7, , 9: We lived in a rural burb for 14 years with 2 cars going full time running kids to activities, etc. Interestingly, we had a family member take offense to going one car, thought we were cheap and nuts.
So now, we also get the satisfaction of frustrating her with our one car choice. Are we related to the same people? Not like many any? Live and let live.
Nobody has ever thought of this like they have…. Again live and let live. Happened this Christmas with drawing names instead of shopping for everyone. Ealasaid Haas October 7, , This is a great article. I was unemployed for a while this summer and jumped at the first job offer I got — which has a mile commute each way.
Even that only trims about minutes off the drive. Tracy October 8, , Both my partner and I work in the suburbs opposite Seattle. Ugh, it was horrible. I used to hate biking, but have gotten a lot better and now actually enjoy it.
So now I get paid to ride my bike! Well, at least it makes it free to ride. Aleks December 1, , 3: Your experience is an interesting contrast with mine. I also work in the Seattle suburbs, but have made a point of living in the city Capitol Hill and Ballard. For me, I look at it this way. I can live close to where I work, and be far away from everything else.
Or I can live close to everything else, and be far away from work. Plus, if I work from home days a week, I can reduce that to trips. But by living in the city, I can walk or bus pretty much everywhere, and have no need for a car.
Admittedly, a big part of this is my own strong preference for dense, urban living. There are dozens of reasons that I might end up getting a new job, and virtually every other employer in my industry is in the city. So buying a house in the suburbs would additionally be making a gamble that I would continue working at the same company for the rest of my career.
Mike Lew Lamar October 10, , 1: That was an interesting read. My last real job was about 10 miles away, which took about 45 minutes to ride, or about 20 to drive. I always felt good after a ride, and they had a shower at work, so it was no problem. If it was rainy too many days in a row, I would feel out of sorts.
I went back there to visit after not working there for years, and people knew of me as that guy who rode is bike from so far. Now I work as a freelancer, mostly at home. I was going to Silicon Valley for one day a week, but I would not drive unless I had to. I could take a bus and train and then I got a scooter for grown-ups to go the last mile from the train to work. Adam October 10, , 1: The commute is just one in five trips a household makes- you can find out how much households spend on all their transportation at abogo.
We here at CNT have been crunching the numbers on combined housing and transportation affordability- defiantly an important way people can save money! Shashi October 10, , 1: Another point while doing the calculations would be overall health benefits of cycling, which could probably lead to lower healthcare costs when one turns older. I mean it is difficult for some people like me to find time to exercise or go to a gym. I started cycling to work daily as the commute time remains the same yet I am able to burn some calories as well.
So my exercise time and commute time overlap and thus I have more time to spend on other things. John Fiala October 10, , 4: The bus passes near my home, winds through the area, and drops me off a few blocks from work, allowing me a few blocks of walking every morning and evening.
Rachel October 10, , 4: Venkatesh October 10, , 4: Also, if you do similar calculations of the true costs of food items, I am sure you will see how economical it is to have seasonal, local grown food as opposed to the food that travels miles and miles from the place of farming, there by demanding commuting, preservations and freezing, among other costs.
And, a similar line of thinking can be applied to ruthless meat and other animal food eating. If you are wondering where all this is leading up to, it is we should take charge of the logistics of our living ourselves instead of depending on corporations.
It will not only reduce daily expenses, but will give more time to interact with others in a communal manner, reduce the incidents of lifestyle diseases, and so on.
Chad October 10, , 7: Very timely article, as I am currently talking to a prospective employer in South Denver. My commute would increase a little over 30 miles each way. I was trying to put a cost to the increase in miles and time, but I was definitely missing some variables. I think I may just stick with my short commute and flexibility for working from home. Mel October 10, , 8: What do you recommend for cities like Cleveland and Buffalo, who get feet of lake effect snow for4 or 5 months out of the year?
MMM October 11, , GC January 13, , 1: I lived in Cleveland Heights Cedar Fairmount area without a car or a bike either for five years while attending school at Case. I either took the RTA student pass or walked everywhere. If you have the right gear good boots, parka , walking or riding a bike around Cleveland and the nearby surrounding suburbs is definitely possible, even in the winter.
In the mornings while I was out waiting at the bus stop, I used to see this one couple riding their bikes down Cedar Road even in the dead of winter.
Considering how long and steep that hill heading into Cleveland from Cedar-Fairmount is, biking it takes some real guts on an icy road! Roy June 29, , 2: Good boots and double socks did the trick. I work downtown, and I saw some serious bad-asses biking on some very thick tires all winter long. Peonsafari October 11, , 2: I had a job up to a year ago which required me driving all over town.
I was paid 58 cents per mile, but the wear and tear and time was still a losing proposition. I now live 1. I sometimes walk but 1 mile of it is a rather big hill…fine in the mornings, exhausting in the afternoons.
When I drive I put it in neutral for that mile and coast down the hill. I fill my car up about once every 5 weeks. I do use it for shopping and other trips sometimes..
For the first time in my adult life, I have gone a year without needing some sort of car repair save for some basic maintenance changed the oil once this year. The money saved is amazing, but the time is even more noticeable. I leave for work at to be there at , and my route is a residential street with 1 traffic light.
I leave at 5, I am home at 5: I wake up an hour before I am due at the office. DJ October 11, , 6: We went car free last Spring and this will be our first winter as such.
Just my two kids and I. Triplet bicycle built for three , Tandem for two. My job is basically raising my two autistic kids. Our utilities are pretty low and this is a good place to live and raise children. Ian Wright October 11, , As I an Ottawa native I am very impressed you manged to bike year round there. It is brave man who can get up in the morning and face C weather on a bike. I really enjoyed this post. Of course I have always chosen to live close to downtown of any city I live in.
I have tried explaining my view to many of my friends, some get it others really want the suburban lifestyle. It makes such a huge difference. I would sacrifice size over location any day of the week to avoid a 1 hour commute each way like some people I know. October 11, , Just for fun, I checked the Google bicycle map. My commute in the car is 7.
Takes me about 20 minutes Mapquest says 14 minutes but I would have to catch every light green , 25 if the roads are bad.
If I even still remember how to ride. Plus my car has heated seats, a nice sound system, all that. Yeah, yeah, I know — it does cost me money. But out where I live I have a big yard to grow a substantial amount of food, which saves me money. Michelle October 11, , My fiance and I were laid off over two years ago and since had to rely on unemployment and part-time jobs. Within the last 6 months we have finally found the jobs we were waiting for.
They are 50 miles apart. But in our situation the only realistic move puts us each 25 miles away from our job and leaves us in a terrible neighborhood. What is the solution? If you really are both committed to your jobs, then that is a bit of a bind.
Then get a good cargo bike for the short-commute person and join the community. Money Mustache October 11, , MM and I will attempt to take a stab at your comment because I find it to be an interesting and most likely common problem. First of all, congrats on finding jobs! And, it sounds like you might be willing to move, which is also great.
Given all this information, I would move to the town that was within biking distance of ONE of the jobs and had more opportunities for employment for the other spouse. Then, the other spouse can start looking for another job in that town asap, as a mile commute would suck!! But, if one person is biking and the other is driving, then there are opportunities for savings as you might only need one car instead of 2.
If the person working further away also has the opportunity to work from home once or twice a week, that would make things even better…. Having said all this, honestly, if it was me I would not do a mile commute. So, I would accept the better job based on criteria above and have the other person work part time until they could find a job nearby if 2 incomes are needed after saving all that money from biking to work!
Steve October 11, , 2: For most of my adult working life as a software geek I always lived within walking or cycling distance from work. I then took the analysis a step further and realized the job itself was the problem.
So now I drive from job to job in a van filled with chainsaws and climbing equipment in order to prune and remove trees. Exercise is built in to the job and I work when I want, one day a week or 5 days. Joe Average February 23, , 3: RD October 11, , 3: I live in the UK, work in London 65 miles away and have a 2. I have 2 train changes to make on my journey and have never once yet been late for work.
I get up at , get on the train at and get to work around , I leave at and get home just before Most of us live on the coast, where I live I am 1 min from the beach and 30 mins walking from the hills and woods of the South Downs so the commute is worth it for the better standard of living.
Plus I get to read books a week, expensive but a joy to have that much time a day to read. Brodiemac October 12, , 2: Jesse October 12, , 3: First, if you work in an urban area, for every miles closer to the city you pay a magnitude greater per square foot for housing, easily surpassing the costs of commuting. Second, there are all sorts of other relevant variables besides being able to bike to work.
Yes, it takes longer, but see point number one. Plus you feel like a boss turning on the lights in a dark office in the morning. Gerard June 12, , 7: I am curious if you could comment on hybrid cars. I really would like to buy a scooter, but where I live Florida riding a scooter to work on the roads I have to take is basically a death wish. Do you think that cost of a hybird or the upcoming Prius plug in is reasonable when it comes to trying to save money on commuting?
MMM October 12, , 8: Go for the scooter! My love of scooter was reignited by that post of yours which prompted me to write the previous comment! I do agree, if you buy a beefy scooter you can keep up with traffic, but driving a car in Florida is scary enough. I used to drive a Yaris in Japan and the gas mileage was sick! Bob October 12, , 4: Just read a book or work stuff on your commute assuming you take public transport. My commute is about 1hr each way, even though I only live a few miles from work inner city and all.
Crissa October 12, , 4: To keep things non-promotional, please use a real name or nickname not Blogger My Blog Name. The most useful comments are those written with the goal of learning from or helping out other readers — after reading the whole article and all the earlier comments.
Notify me of new posts by email. Take a look around. If you think you are hardcore enough to handle Maximum Mustache, feel free to start at the first article and read your way up to the present using the links at the bottom of each article.
For more casual sampling, have a look at this complete list of all posts since the beginning of time or download the mobile app. Go ahead and click on any titles that intrigue you, and I hope to see you around here more often. Except their plan was absurd. You might also like: I live and work in Colorado Springs. Here are some examples of real people in my office: If only everyone read MMM. Neither of us drive now and saving thousands. We found a place that was 10 minutes from our elevator bank to his workplace elevator bank.
Hey MMM, Nice post! According to my math, it was 4. Ha, sounds about right for most of us who commute in and around Atlanta. Great article, as usual. MMM Well considering that the area in question was a quarter mile from the Atlantic, about half of the 8 mile radius you describe would leave us mighty soggy. What do people think of a 10 mile bike commute, is that pretty standard?