Bird anatomy

DEPARTMENTS

Songs and Calls of North American Birds
Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo Phalacrocoracidae, Aves. The capacity to reduce particle size is related to the metabolic demands of a species. They did not evolve directly from reptilian scales, as once was thought. Villi are projections from the intestinal wall that increase the amount of surface area available for absorption. The greater labour demands of cut-and-carry systems represent a major constraint. The god who patronized the city, gods and goddesses who had major temples, were the recipients of royal treatment -- it seems in fact that the chief statues of the gods, which were considered to hold the spirit of the divinities they depicted, were treated very much like the human kings.

Form and function

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Meissner's submucosal plexus Areolar connective tissue Auerbach's myenteric plexus Oral mucosa and Gastric mucosa. Serous membrane and Adventitia. This section discusses related diseases, medical associations with the gastrointestinal tract, and use in surgery.

Gastrointestinal disease and Gastroenterology. Ruminant and Methanogens in digestive tract of ruminants. This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see Anatomical terminology. Invertebrate Zoology 7 ed. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. Factor in achieving total enteroscopy? H; Fava, F; Hermes, G. M; Hold, G; Quraishi, M. G; Hart, A A new clinical frontier".

The Neglected Endocrine Organ". Introduction to Behavioral Endocrinology. Retrieved 2 September Oxford textbook of medicine: Retrieved 1 July Mitchell; illustrations by Richard; Richardson, Paul Gray's anatomy for students 3rd ed. Human Embryology and Developmental Biology 3rd ed. Histology and cell biology: From Bench Side to Bedside. Small intestine transit time in the normal small bowel study.

American Journal of Roentgenology ; 3: Colonic Transit Study Technique and Interpretation: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. Key Regulators of Immune Homeostasis and Inflammation". The American Journal of Pathology. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. Influence on innate and acquired immunity". World Journal of Gastroenterology. Science of everyday things: The Journal of Biological Chemistry.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Journal of Clinical Investigation. Retrieved 19 May Human systems and organs. Fibrous joint Cartilaginous joint Synovial joint. Skin Subcutaneous tissue Breast Mammary gland. Myeloid Myeloid immune system Lymphoid Lymphoid immune system.

Genitourinary system Kidney Ureter Bladder Urethra. Anatomy of the mouth. Vermilion border Frenulum of lower lip Labial commissure of mouth Philtrum. Hard palate Soft palate Palatine raphe Incisive papilla. Parotid gland duct Submandibular gland duct Sublingual gland duct.

Oropharynx fauces Plica semilunaris of the fauces Uvula Palatoglossal arch Palatopharyngeal arch Tonsillar fossa Palatine tonsil. Anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract , excluding the mouth. Muscles Spaces peripharyngeal retropharyngeal parapharyngeal retrovisceral danger prevertebral Pterygomandibular raphe Pharyngeal raphe Buccopharyngeal fascia Pharyngobasilar fascia Piriform sinus.

Sphincters upper lower glands. Suspensory muscle Major duodenal papilla Minor duodenal papilla Duodenojejunal flexure Brunner's glands. Ileocecal valve Peyer's patches Microfold cell.

Ascending colon Hepatic flexure Transverse colon Splenic flexure Descending colon Sigmoid colon Continuous taenia coli haustra epiploic appendix.

Retrieved from " https: Abdomen Digestive system Endocrine system Routes of administration. Pages with unresolved properties All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles with unsourced statements from October Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 7 September , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Diagram of stomach, intestines and rectum. If you have never emptied a baby's crop, it is best to contact an avian vet or an experienced breeder to do the task. A stretched crop is a condition seen in handfeeding baby parrots.

It is caused by trying to give a baby too much food in one feed, and, thereby, overfilling and stretching the muscles of the crop. The crop skin and muscles have a natural elasticity that assist in the digestion of food and retain their shape as the food is digested. When empty, the crop should be flat. If the crop is overfilled to the point of stretching the skin and muscles, it will hang onto the breastbone, and a portion of the food will remain in the part of the crop that is overlapping onto the breastbone.

It will appear very much like a deflated balloon. If left uncorrected, the food remaining in the crop will develop bacteria, which will slow the digestive process even more, causing weight loss and possibly eventual death. If your baby's crop should become stretched, you can help correct the problem by making a "crop bra" for him. The illustration shows a picture of a crop bra.

Depending on the size of the baby, it may be made with a wide gauze bandage, or a strip of towel or rag. The wide area in the middle should be long and wide enough to support his crop, the strips should be long enough too be fastened around him. The upper strips should be fastened, or tied, around the back of his neck, above his wings, and the lower strips should be under his wings and around his back. The crop bra should remain on the baby until his crop muscles are strong enough to empty his crop.

Until then, the crop should be emptied completely, and cleaned with warm water, every 24 hours. Splay leg is a condition that begins in very young babies that are not strong enough to hold their legs together on a slippery surface. It is generally caused by keeping the baby in a container that either does not have enough bedding, or, the surface under the bedding is so smooth that he cannot get his footing.

His legs will spread out to the sides and very soon he will not be able to hold them under him at all. If this condition is not corrected at an early age, it may become permanent as he grows and the bones harden. Splay leg is very easily corrected when it is recognized early enough.

If the legs are secured under the baby at a distance apart that would normal for him to stand, the problem can usually be remedied in less than a week. The correction time will depend on the severity and the age of the chick. It is also important to correct the conditions that caused the problem to prevent it from recurring.

Depending on the size of the baby, the legs may be held together with gauze tape, a strip of cloth, or connected rings that his feet will fit through. Whatever you use, make sure that nothing is so tight on this legs that the circulation to his feet is cut off. If this happens, you may save his legs and lose his feet. Once his legs have become strong enough for him to support him, and stay under him, the supports may be removed.

If splay leg is not corrected, the baby's legs will grow out to the sides, and he will never be able to stand normally. This problem most often develops in very young babies that are still growing and developing. The tendon that normally fits into the groove at the heal of the foot slips to the side of the heal. As the tendon contracts it will cause the foot to turn to the side and the toes to clench.

It will look as though the baby is walking on the side of his foot. At less than 2 weeks, I have been able to correct this problem by securing the baby's feet on a piece of tape, much like standing him on a mouse sticky trap. As he gets a little older, the tendon may be surgically pinned in the correct position until it enlarges the groove in the heal to retain placement on its own.

If the condition is not recognized early enough in the babies development, the tendon may shorten so that the baby's foot is permanently turned to the side. If the condition is corrected, there will be no residual side effects, and no evidence that the problem ever existed.

Scissor is a condition where the upper mandible is not straight and does not meet correctly over the lower mandible. There have been many theories as to the cause of this condition, e. It is very possible that it may be caused by any one, or a combination of these. Feeding technique has often been blamed as the cause of this condition, but I believe that there are other contributing factors. I, personally, feed over babies a year, and may have one or two of these that have scissor beak.

All of them are fed the same. Although feeding technique may, at times, be one of the causes,there are a number of other possible reasons for the condition. Heredity may be one of the causes, but I have seen this condition in a babies that were not consistently from any related parentage.

This condition may occur in young babies that tend to clamp the top mandible tightly over the lower mandible to one side or the other doing the chugging, feeding motion. This causes a groove to develop in the lower mandible that the upper mandible begins to rest in.

In time, the upper mandible begins to curve to one side as it rests in this groove, and the lower mandible grows longer on the opposite side. Regardless of the cause, or the age of the bird, this condition is generally correctable with persistent trimming of the upper and lower mandibles and the cleft that the upper mandible rests in located on the under side of the upper mandible.

The parrot pictured is a two year old Green Wing macaw that had scissor beak so badly that he could barely eat any hard foods. His lower mandible, on the right side, had grown to extend two inches higher than his upper mandible. His upper mandible curved to the left and formed a long tusk that circled the side of his face and almost touched his cheek.

I cut off the tusk and the extended lower mandible with a large nail clipper, and drummelled both mandibles into shape. I also used the Drummel tool to shape the under side of the upper mandible and to straighten the cleft.

The picture shows what this bird looked like after a couple of weeks of trimming. Since a bird's beak is constantly growing, persistent trimming will eventually result in both mandibles growing normally, and the condition corrected.

To be sure that the correction is done properly, shaping and clipping of the beak should only be done by an avian vet or someone that has had experience in this procedure. Incorrect trimming may worsen the condition. Sudden excessive beak and nail growth is most often caused by fatty liver disease. Although excessive beak growth can also be caused by PBFD psittacine beak and feather disease , if this disease is ruled out by testing, the cause may be caused in overweight parrots by a fatty liver.

It is a symbol of the Holy Spirit Genesis 1: David in his distress wished that he had the wings of a dove, that he might fly away and be at rest Psalms There is a species of dove found at Damascus "whose feathers, all except the wings, are literally as yellow as gold" Song Of Solomon 2: Song Of Solomon 5: Song Of Solomon 6: The daughters saw her, and blessed her; [yea], the queens and the concubines, and they praised her.

I did mourn as a dove: Abides in lofty, remote eyrie, descends to earth, catches quadrupeds and ascends to the greatest height of all birds. Macrocosmically - The highest spiritual principle in Creation, the threefold Deific Principle which observes all. The kingly aspect of the Divine. Microcosmically - The triple, kingly Ego able to contact the Monad the sun , able also to descend into the personality a quaternary or 'quadruped' , seize its consciousness and elevate it near to the Monad, the sun.

The eagle is the most swift, strong, laborious, generous and noble of all birds. At least four distinct kinds of eagles have been observed in Palestine, viz. The Hebrew nesher may stand for any of these different species, though perhaps more particular reference to the golden and imperial eagles and the griffon vulture may be intended. The passage in Micah, Micah 1: The "eagles" of Matthew The figure of an eagle is now and has long been a favorite military ensign.

The Persians so employed it; a fact which illustrates the passage in Isaiah The eagle's swoop onto a snake was particularly significant because it symbolised what was thought to have happened in the sky in the past and might happen again in the future. Eagle - SpiritEagle flies fearlessly, bridging heaven and earth, and teaches us to courageously face our fear of the unknown in order to fly as high as our heart's joy can take us.

The Latin name aquila for an eagle points to Ugro-Finnish origins. The Hungarian kvil is light; kivilagit is to illuminate. Greek aigle is a ray. Greek aetos, eagle, resembles Hebrew ayit, bird of prey. The Norse orn, eagle, lived on top of the world tree Yggdrasil. A squirrel, named Ratatosk, carried messages between the eagle and the snake at the foot of the tree. Orn resembles Greek ornis, bird, and there is even a resemblance to the Hebrew or, light. The Slavonic orel is an eagle.

Sculptured eagles were used as lightning conductors on buildings, as at Delphi. Hebrew azniya is a kind of eagle. Reversed, this becomes ayin za. Ayin is an eye. The falcon was the lightning symbol of the Egyptians, and was associated with Horus. The object appearing in Egyptian art and hieroglyphics and called the utchat, or udjat, was the eye of Horus or of Ra. The osprey, a bird of prey like the eagle, was in Latin sanqualis. As with the eagle, the Romans watched its flight.

The name may incorporate sankh; the radiation of the god was thought to give life. The eagle was the chief of the birds symbolizing the lightning god in the sky. The Indian wore the feathers of the eagle, but this great bird is so highly regarded that each eagle feather had to be earned by the wearer.

Deeds of bravery, generosity, self-sacrifice, or provident wisdom could result in the wearing of an eagle feather. An eagle has such good vision and great caution that seldom could a hunter get close enough to bring it down with a bow and arrow. It was regarded so highly that it was believed bad luck would befall any hunter who would shoot such a magnificent bird.

The eagle is regarded as the connection to Wakan Tanka. Its feathers are regarded as having brushed the face of God and are used as powerful healing tools. Eagle feathers are also believed to help an individual to gather courage and to maintain courage for a fearless drive to perform a good task or worthwhile deed under difficult conditions.

Both are symbols of the eternal sacrifice of God as He immerses Himself in the form aspect of nature and thus becomes God immanent as well as God transcendent. We have seen that Christ must be recognized, first of all, in the cosmic sense. The cosmic Christ has existed from all eternity.

This cosmic Christ is divinity, or spirit, crucified in space. He personifies the immolation or sacrifice of spirit upon the cross of matter, of form or substance, in order that all divine forms, including the human, may live.

This has ever been recognized by the so-called pagan faiths. If the symbolism of the cross is traced far back, it will be found that it antedates Christianity by thousands of years, and that finally, the four arms of the cross will be seen to drop away, leaving only the picture of the living Heavenly Man, with His arms outspread in space. North, south, east and west stands the cosmic Christ upon what is called "the fixed cross of the heavens.

Its altar is the sun, whose four arms or rays typify the four corners or the cardinal cross of the universe, which have become the four fixed signs of the Zodiac, and as the four powerful sacred animal signs, are both cosmical and spiritual These four are known as the consecrated animals of the Zodiac, while the signs themselves represent the basic fundamental elements of life, Fire, Earth, Air and Water. Christ personified in His mission these four aspects, and as the cosmic Christ He exemplified in His Person the qualities for which each sign stood.

Even primitive man, unevolved and ignorant, was aware of the significance of the cosmic spirit, immolated in matter and crucified upon the four-armed cross.

These four signs are to be found unequivocally in the Bible, and are regarded in our Christian belief as the four sacred animals. The Prophet Ezekiel refers to them in the words: And again in the Book of Revelations, we find the same astrological symbology: The "face of the man" is the ancient sign of Aquarius, the sign of the man carrying the water-pot, to which Christ referred when He sent His disciples into the city, saying: This is the zodiacal sign into which we are entering.

It might be as well to point out that this is astronomically true and not simply a pronouncement [] of the astrologers. The symbol which stands for the zodiacal sign Leo, is the Lion. This sign is the symbol of individuality, and under its influence the race arrives at self-consciousness and men can function as individuals. Christ, in His teaching, emphasized the significance of the individual and in His life demonstrated the supreme value of the individual, his perfecting, his service and his ultimate sacrifice in the interests of the whole.

The constellation Aquila is always regarded as interchangeable with the sign Scorpio, the serpent, and it is therefore frequently used in this connection when considering the fixed cross of the cosmic Savior.

Scorpio is the serpent of illusion from which the Christ nature finally frees us, and it is to the illusory wiles of this serpent Scorpio that Adam succumbed in the garden of Eden. The "face of the ox" is the biblical symbol for the sign Taurus, the Bull, which was the religion immediately antedating the Jewish revelation, and which found its exponents in Egypt and in the Mithraic Mysteries.

Upon this fixed cross all the world Saviors, not excepting the Christ of the West, have been eternally crucified, as reminders to man of the divine intent based upon the divine sacrifice. The behaviour, generally on the ground, of such birds as the quail and the hoopoe.

The quail, ortyx, gives its name to an island: Ortygia is an old name for Delos. Book of Numbers Book of Psalms The hoopoe gave warning when it detected changes in the atmosphere that heralded an electrical storm. It detected earthquake light and piezoelectric charges on split rocks, in the ten or twelve hours before an earthquake.

The Hoopoes are a small Old World family of two or three species see below of similar birds. All have long, thin, and decurved bills; broad round wings; square tails crossed by a wide white band, and long erectile crests. This Madagascar Hoopoe left has its crest erected. All species also have dramatic black and white wing patterns the patterns vary between the species that show in flight or, as below same bird as upper left , when the bird is preening.

Behaviorally, they remind me a New World resident of American flickers. Both hoopoes and flickers appear superficial to be birds of the trees and both nest in tree cavities , but each spend most of their foraging time on the ground, probing the leaf-litter.

Hoopoes are exotic in appearance, but they are open-country birds -- birds of savanna and broken woodlands -- and do not occur in dense jungle e. The hoopoe was the chief of the birds that detected the electrical god in the earth.

Its name, epops, beholder, indicates that it could see the earthquake light. The hoopoe is going to sing! A few moments later, the hoopoe begins its song. Probably the hoopoe is on stage and it is the hoopoe's crest that attracts attention. The Greek horan, to see, has a perfect tense opopa, sometimes used instead of the usual form heoraka. The hoopoe was the bird that saw, and there was a frieze of hoopoes at Knosos, the place of gnosis, getting to know.

We have already seen that the name of the hoopoe in The Birds is Tereus, a word that comes from the Greek tereo, I observe. The Hebrew for a hoopoe is dukhiphat. Duch is a Slavonic word meaning 'spirit'; phat is a Greek root meaning revelation, either by sound or by sight. The word bird is mentioned in the Glorious Quran 5 times and the word birds occurs in the Noble Quran 13 times.

Among the birds, the hoopoe hud-hud in Arabic has been specifically mentioned twice in Surah 27, An-Naml, in the following manner: How is it that I see not the hoopoe, or is he among the absent? The head is thrown back and the bill points straight up. Whatever this indicates, it does seem to discourage potential enemies.

Messenger of Prophets Prophet Solomon was a king and the ruler of Syria and Palestine whose armies consisted of troops made of men, Jinn and birds. It is possible that the birds were employed for communicating the messages, hunting and for other suitable services.

In the Quran His most mobile arm was the birds, which were light on the wing and flew and saw everything like efficient scouts. Prophet Solomon expressed his anger and his desire to punish the hoopoe severely if it did not present itself before him with a reasonable excuse.

I have brought sure information about Saba Sheba, a well-known rich people of southern Arabia, now the present day Yemen. There I have seen a woman ruling over her people: I saw that she and her people prostrate themselves before the sun, instead of Allah!

Take this letter of mine and cast it before them; then get aside and see what reaction they show. Here ends the role of the hoopoe. Some people have interpreted that hoopoe hud-bud was the name of a man and not a bird, because a bird could not possibly be endowed with such powers of observation, discrimination and expression that it should pass over a country and should come to know that it is the land of Saba, it has such and such a system of government, it is ruled by a certain woman Bilquis , its religion is sun-worship, that it should have worshipped One God instead of having gone astray, and then on its return to Prophet Solomon it should so clearly make a report of all its observations before him.

The counter-argument is that inspite of great advances in science and technology, man cannot tell with absolute certainty what powers and abilities the different species of animals and their different individuals possess?

Man has not so far been able to know through any certain means what different animals know and what they see and hear; what they feel, think and understand; or how the mind of each one of them works.

Yet, whatever little observation has been made of the life of the different species of animals, it has revealed some of their wonderful abilities. The ibis, which had great skill in killing snakes, was associated with the god Thoth, who was equated with the Greek Hermes and was the Egyptian electrical god par excellence.

The falcon was a bird that had protective powers, and was frequently linked with royalty, where it was depicted as hovering over the head of the pharaoh, with outstretched wings. The falcon was also sacred to Montu, god of war, and Sokar, god of the Memphite necropolis. The bird of prey was sometimes associated with Hathor, 'The House of Horus'.

The son of Horus, Qebehsenuef who guarded the canopic jar of the intestines, was a falcon-headed god. The human headed ba-bird was sometimes given the body of a falcon. Sacred to Horus, the falcon or hawk was thought to be the guardian of the ruler, and is frequently found as spreading its wings protectively behind the head of the pharaoh.

At Saqqara during the Late Period, there was a catacomb build for mummified falcons. These birds, though, were shown to be of different types of birds of prey, not just the falcon. To the Egyptians, the Horus-falcon may have been regarded as interchangeable with a whole range of different birds of prey. The ubiquitous Eye of Horus symbol of ancient Egyptian religion can be quite readily shown to have been inspired by the "Eye of God" aka "Eye in the Sky" that is manifested in the heavens above our planet Earth during most if not all total eclipses of the sun.

Horus, the famous solar falcon god of ancient Egypt, was quite evidently inspired by the "winged disk" or the "Bird of the Sun" that is readily perceivable within the sun's corona during those total eclipses of the sun in which the streamers of the sun's corona are concentrated into the sun's equatorial regions and thus appear very much like a bird's wings spreading out on either side of the so-called "black sun" that is formed by the dark circle of the occulting disk of the moon.

The ancient Egyptian myth of the cosmic battle between the solar falcon god Horus and the sun eating serpent god Set was quite evidently inspired by total solar eclipses as the British Museum's reputed Egyptologist EA Wallis Budge noted well over a century ago.

In fact, the solar falcon god Horus is very clearly spoken of as assuming the form of a gigantic "winged disk" in some versions of this ancient Egyptian solar eclipse myth. The Eye of Horus symbol does not usually show the wings of the solar falcon god however the Egyptians also had a closely related winged version of their total solar eclipse inspired udjat eye symbol. I expect that the wingless Eye of Horus symbol is essentially a winged udjat eye symbol from which the wings of the coronal SunBird have been deliberately removed in order to emphasize the religious attribute of this sky god's divine omniscience that is allegorized by the striking similarity in appearance of the totally eclipsed sun to an "Eye of God".

The "solar eye" nature of the Eye of Horus symbol is clearly revealed by the fact that some versions of this ancient Egyptian religious symbol clearly depict the pupil and iris of the "Eye of Horus" as red sun disk with a central black dot See: Depicted as a falcon or with a falcon's head, often standing on a crescent-shaped boat.

Egyptian god in the form of a crouching falcon. Worshipped at Behdet Edfu , he later was identified as a local form of the god Horus. Originally an Egyptian crocodile god, he later took on the form of a falcon.

Chenti-irti Machenti-irti Egyptian falcon-god of law and order, identified with Horus. Usually depicted as a falcon or in human form with the head of a falcon. The sun and the moon are said to be his eyes. Son of Isis and the dead Osiris. He was born at Khemmis in the Nile Delta, and Isis hid him in the papyrus marshes to protect him against Seth, his father's murderer. Horus later avenged the death of his father against Seth. Horus lost his left eye the moon in the contest between the two.

Horus was identified with Lower Egypt and Seth with Upper Egypt in this battle, which lasted eighty years. The gods judged Horus to be the winner, and Seth was either killed or castrated. The consequence of Horus's victory was the union of Upper and Lower Egypt. The Egyptian pharaoh was believed to be an incarnation of Horus, and the name of Horus formed part of his name. The pharaoh was said to become Horus after death. Seth restored the eye he had torn from Horus, but Horus gave it instead to Osiris.

The image of the "eye of Horus", a human eye combined with the cheek markings of a falcon, became a powerful amulet among the Egyptians. Among the various manifestations of Horus are: This refers to his birth and secret rearing by Isis.

In this form he is often depicted as a naked child seated on Isis's lap. In this form Horus battled against Seth. Horus at Heliopolis, linked with Ra in the sun cult. In this form he is associated with the rising sun. Horus as symbol of resurrection, linked with the setting sun. Originally a local form of Horus as Behdet in the Delta region.

In this form he was symbolized by the winged solar disk. Egyptian son of Horus, Canopic guardian of the viscera after mummification. He was represented as a mummified man with the head of a falcon. He is usually depicted in human form with a falcon head, crowned with the sun disc encircled by the uraeus a stylized representation of the sacred asp.

The sun itself was taken to be either his body or his eye. His principal cult centre was at Heliopolis. Re was also considered to be an underworld god, closely associated in this respect with Osiris. By the third millennium B. Re's prominence had already become such that the pharaohs took to styling themselves "sons of Re".

According to one tradition, Re is said to have created himself out of the mound that grew from the primeval lotus blossom. He then created Shu air and Tefnut moisture , who in turn engendered the earth god Geb and the sky goddess Nut. Another tradition states that Re created mankind from his own tears. Turning and turning in the widening gyre The falcon cannot hear the falconer; Things fall apart; the center cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world, The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere The ceremony of innocence is drowned; The best lack all conviction; while the worst Are full of passionate intensity.

Total solar eclipses most probably inspired the Nazca Lines biomorph geoglyphs in Peru, the Uffington White Horse in England total solar eclipses of and BCE , Ohio's Great Serpent Mound and other such gigantic ground drawings that are best viewed from the sky. There is abundant evidence in the religious iconography of the Southern Cult that its "myths and monsters", like those of many other ancient cultures, were inspired by total solar eclipses.

The "sophisticated astronomical system" of the Southern Cult may provide evidence that solar eclipses were important cosmic events that the Southern Cult tried to predict. A bird-like pattern is clearly manifested within the sun's corona during some total solar eclipses. This "sunbird" evidently inspired the Egyptian winged sun symbol, the anthropomorphic solar falcon god Horus, and the bennu bird which we know as the proverbial phoenix.

The very same coronal "sunbird" almost certainly inspired the Southern Cult's own "supernatural" Bird-man who is most probably an anthropomorphic sun god avatar and its own "solar falcon" analogous to Horus.

The large bird effigy mounds contained within circles probably depict this "supernatural" coronal "sunbird. Some drawings of coronal patterns made by19th century astronomers distinctly resemble the Southern Cult's "weeping-eye motif. Latin ardea is a heron. It was noted for the long crest on its head. Of the two elements of the word, ar is clearly the fire. Dea is rather less obvious, but Hebrew dea, knowledge, is an attractive possibility. Ardea was the name of an Etruscan city near Rome, capital of the Rutuli.

Heron bnw - The bnw-bird was represented as a heron, and was thought to be the original phoenix - it was a bird of the sun and rebirth, the sacred bird of Heliopolis, closely linked to the primeval mound. It was also thought to be the Ba of both Ra and Osiris. The Hebrew name is 'Anaphah , and indicates that the bird so named is remarkable for its angry disposition. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk. Microcosmically - The Ego in the Causal Body which participates in, or 'sees' through the mind, all the actions of the personality.

When 'awake' or Causal consciousness gained, then the human becomes divine. Ego and personality are one. Above the eye is no eyelid never closed , neither is there any eyebrow over it All is right; there is no left. He slumbered not; he requireth not protection. The peacock was sacred to Juno. Its Latin name was pavo. Perhaps the pattern on its tail, resembling eyes, associated it with radiation.

Its name resembles the Latin pavor, fear. The name of Juno's Greek counterpart, the goddess Hera, suggests fear. In Egyptian, her, hra, mean 'face; upon'. It is possible that Hera was originally thought of as the atmosphere surrounding the planet that the Romans called Jupiter. It was known that the peacock sheds its feathers from time to time. This may explain the hoplitodromos at Athens, a race by hoplites, armed soldiers, wearing nothing but helmets.

Yezidism The Yezidi religion is one of the most unusual religions one earth. It has survived despite its status as an unrecognized religion under Islamic rule, and through many onslaughts against it's Kurdish followers. The Kurds live in a largely autonomous region between northern Iraq and Turkey, where they are considered a threat to both the Turkish government and the Iraqi rule of Saddam Hussein.

The Yezidi religion was, in the past, regarded as the main religion of the Kurds scattered across these various countries and areas. There is no specific Yezidi Holy text, but important information about Yezidi practices is contained in the Mes'haf i Resh, or "black book" attributed to Adi's son, and the Jelwa, or "book of revelation," a brief homily attributed to Adi. Neither book is considered sacred, however- Yezidi tradition is strictly oral, and consists of hymns and prayers.

Literacy is not prized in the community, and was once taboo. The most important Feast day is that of Jam, when the various Yezidi groups converge on Lalish, the burial place of Adi.

During the Jam, the Peacock icon, representing Malek Taus, is presented to the worshippers during a seven day celebration. It coincides with an ancient Zoroastrian feast day, one of many coincidences that lead some scholars to make a connection between the two religions. Yezidi beliefs are a complicated mixture of ancient Mesopotamian religion with elements of Zoroastrianism, Gnosticism, and Mithraism. Worship centers around Angels Yezidi is derived from the Arabic word for 'angel' , the most important of which is named Melek Taus, or the "Peacock Angel," also known as Lucifer.

Lucifer plays a different role in Yezidism than in other faiths, where he is considered the chief Archangel, and the creator of the material world. In Yezidi belief, Lucifer is not a fallen angel, or the enemy of God. In Yezidi cosmology, the universal Spirit the Supreme deity created a pearl, which became broken after forty thousand years.

Melek, or Lucifer, used the remains of the pearl to create the material world. After this creation, the Spirit created the remaining Angels. Yezidi theology claims that Lucifer was forgiven for his transgressions, and those who revere him are the spiritual elect of humanity. They are forbidden from referring to him as Satan. Peacock sparks row over Kavady flag Temples told rooster is correct symbol Thabo Mkhize Feathers have been ruffled in the Hindu community because some temples used a symbol of a peacock rather than a rooster on their flags for Kavady festivals.

The rooster symbol has been widely used for more than a century, but some temples have irked devotees by replacing it with the peacock. Temple officials offer different interpretations of the symbolic significance of the rooster and the peacock.

Some say that the rooster signifies humility while the peacock represents the ego, pride, deception, greed and vanity. Three Hindu temples, including the Shri Vaithianatha Easvarar Alayam in Umgeni Road, the oldest and largest in the country, used the peacock.

Hundreds of devotees carry heavy wooden structures adorned with rows of mandarin-coloured marigolds to offer thanksgiving. The Devasthanam Foundation of South African Indian Temples - an organisation representing most temples in the country - recently convened an urgent meeting after complaints over the use of the peacock flag. Gonaseelan Moopanar, chairman of the foundation, said at the meeting it had been confirmed that the rooster was the correct symbol, not the peacock.

Moopanar said his organisation was working towards bringing about unification in the Hindu religion regarding religious practices. It was trying to resolve the issue of the flags "to avoid further confusion". It has been the symbol for many years.

The temples using the peacock are going against the scriptures, going against the religion and are confusing devotees," said Moopanar. But the chairman of the Umgeni Road Temple, Selvan Thaver, said that they had changed the flag only after being instructed to do so by a priest from India, Raja Gurukkal. We later realised that we had made a mistake. We should not have changed it, because we broke an age-old tradition and devotees were very unhappy with the change.

So we will continue using the peacock and devotees will have to get used to it," he said. George Govender, secretary of the Devasthanam Foundation, said foreign priests, especially those from Sri Lanka, had been instrumental in changing the rooster symbol to the peacock. Govender said the rooster represented humility, while the peacock represented ego, pride, deception, greed and vanity - which were not promoted by the Hindu religion.

Morgan Govender, a priest at the Shree Emperumal Temple in Mt Edgecombe, said the rooster signified the victory of Lord Muruga, while the peacock was just his chariot. Behind Him dawns the rising sun symbolising the awakened mind bodhi.

The peacock is the most important animal in Murukan symbolism. The colour and fertility of the bird equated with the vibrant hills and its beauty was like that of women and fresh vegetation. The peacock danced in the rain and so brought rain like Murukan did. Peacock feathers decorated the kuntu, small pillar, used in worship, and the lance of war and worship.

Later the peacock became the mount of Murukan and flew around the world and to the heavens. When the peacock holds a serpent in claws or beak, this symbolizes its control of malevolent cosmic forces. By the medieval period the peacock is also a symbol of the ocean. As a cosmic symbol the peacock represents totality as does Murukan. The cock and elephant are also important animals with Murukan.

Of minor importance are the ram, goat, horse, and serpent. Murukan's weapon is the lance, commonly the leaf-shaped Tamil vel, sometimes the Sanskrit sakti. The priest of Murukan is the velan, a bearer of the lance. When Murukan holds the lance as sakti, he and his lance symbolize Siva-Sakti, the cosmic pair, god and soul, heaven and earth, god and world.

The two extremes of the cosmos, earth symbolized by the peacock and primordial sound symbolized by the cock, are held together by the lance. Murukan is worshipped with water, coconut milk, sandal paste, red millet, honey, rice, blood, and red, yellow, or white flowers. She is the personification of knowledge - arts, science, crafts. She represents Shakti, creativity and inspiration and presents herself when the weather is complacement and Nature is in its full grandeur.

Goddess Sarawasti is represented as a graceful woman with white skin, wearing a crescent moon on her brow, she rides a swan or a peacock or is seated on a lotus flower. The Padmapurana describes Goddess Saraswati being seated on a white Lotus clad in a spotless white apparel denotes that She is the embodiment of pure knowledge with a necklace of white beads, decked with white flowers and holding the Vina. As the spouse of Brahma and the goddess of wisdom and eloquence, Saraswati is known by various names such as Vinapani due to holding the Vina , Sharada giver of essence , Vagisvari mistress of speech , Brahmi wife of Brahma , Mahavidya knowledge supreme , Satarupa, Sarbasukla, Mahasweta and so on.

This bird, honored around the world for the beauty of its feathers, has also an association with resurrection. For us it can help in sheedding the old and drab feathers of the past and to claim our the true beauty of our individual natures.

As such, it helps to enhance confidence and self-esteem. The Goddess, to console him, said, "But you far excel in beauty and in size. The splendor of the emerald shines in your neck and you unfold a tail gorgeous with painted plumage.

These are all contented with the endowments allotted to them. The great significance of the goose may be due to the appearance of a heavenly body such as a comet, with wing-like protuberances. Aphrodite is portrayed riding on a goose. The goose has a long neck, and hisses like a snake. The goose was the sacred bird of Odin. Goose gb - The goose was the sacred animal of Geb, who was also known as 'The Great Cackler' when he was in goose form, and had the sign of the goose as his headdress.

Isis was sometimes described as 'the egg of the goose', being the daughter of Geb. The Nile goose had often the run of the house and the garden in spite of its vile temper.

There were sacred lakes around Egypt that were home to the sacred geese, where they were well looked after. The migration of Canada Geese marks the passages of the Great Circle of the Year, and reminds us of the sacredness of the cycles of our own life. We can also learn from the cooperative and communal behavior of these birds, which never abandon a sick or wounded member of the flock. They know when to lead or follow and when to seek guidance. Sacred and Profane Geese The goose, a stupid, quarrelsome and inelegant bird has a sacred history, being associated with Osiris in Egypt and Juno in Rome.

Cupid was often sighted riding on a goose before he grew wings of his own and the Mother Goose of fairy tale also possessed the craft to get them airborne. Juno had a partiality for bonding with birds and in her Dublin reincarnation she would be saddled in her turn, though by a paycock.

The domestic history of the goose is brief: Only the finest of its quills might have the honour to be chosen to furnish the flights of arrows. Caesar said the goose was sacred to Celtic tribes and was not considered edible, because of her connection with the Sun-Egg. For similar reasons, medieval superstition forbade the killing of a goose in midwinter, when the sun was thought to be in need of maternal care to gain strength for the new seasons.

Like other formerly sacred creatures, geese were said to contain souls of the unbaptized pagans. Our ancestors had a free imagination and we see often strange symbols or odd symbols. The old law of Island was called Gragàs, which surely means, "grey goose". Maybe it was to remind that law thing had always been in autumn, when we have the Morten Goose or the "blot" and guzzling the goose after the slaughter. As always most of our ancestors were practical and the mind and heart was in the stomach.

It is well known that the capitol of Rome was on one occasion saved when on the point of being surprised by the Gauls in the dead of night, by the cackling of the geese sacred to Juno, kept in the temple of Jupiter. In India, the goose occupied a similar position; for in that land we read of the sacred "Brahmany goose," or goose sacred to Brahma.

The ibis lives on cobras and so saves lives. Eaten by ibis shows man protected and saved by Wisdom. Tehuti, who in this only portrays Buddhi in Manas, the master of the heart and reason in all men, the Savior. Swamp and Marsh mean both lower astral and the primitive, primeval state from and within which life is created and formed.

The origin of birds