Ovulation Predictor Kits (OPK)

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Waktu Subur Wanita – Fahami Kitaran Haid Wanita
In one controversial study, coca leaf infusion was used—in addition to counseling—to treat 23 addicted coca-paste smokers in Lima , Peru. Dr Zubaidi Hj Ahmad: The locomotor enhancing properties of cocaine may be attributable to its enhancement of dopaminergic transmission from the substantia nigra. Dan hingga ke hari ini sya belum period lagi. Assalamualaikum… saya sudah berkahwin selama 1 thun 3 bulan tapi belum ada rezeki untuk menimang cahaya mata…sekarang umur saya 22 tahun suami 24 thn…selepas kahwin haid saya tak tetap dan keluar sedikit…lagi satu berat badan saya naik mendadak…saya takut ssaya tidak boleh hamil…kerana saya terlalu inginkan cahaya mata…bantu saya dalam menyelesaikan masalah saya…. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Nak Beli Barang Cosway?

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Cara ordernya gonna sit. Selama ini saya konsumsi teh bunga rosela dikombinasikan dengan teh daun jati cina, apakah aman bila saya juga minum bersamaan dengan garcinia cambogia ini? Hai sis, saya ada beli Garcinia cambogia forte. Itu memang salah satu garcinia cambogia bukan? Yang dia ada garis ungu di kotak obatnya. Mohon keterangannya yah sis, saya belinya 1 kotak seharga Rp. Masya Allah betulkah saya telah tertipu. Saya pesan melalui iklab di detik. Saya kena tipu juga udah tiga botol. Saya di suruh beli 5 botol sekali beli udah saya batal kan tapi masih saya banyar karna sebagai manusia harua saling menghargai ,dan pada kenyataan kita tertipu,saya minum nga ada efek sama sekali…mudah2an allah memberikan mereka kesehatan dan dan kesuksesan telah melakukan hal2 yg kurang baik pada org2.

Mau tanya,minum garcinia carbogia saja atau harus bersamaan dengan Green cofee? Untuk orang ada sakit maag apa boleh? Saya barusan nemu d fb, Ini bener apa palsu ya.. Maaf mba mau tanya.. Karna kita urus sendiri semua prosesnya dari order di USA sampai masuk Indo. Price list ada di halaman ini. Garcinia itu suplemen diet yg cr kerjanya pembakaran d dlm tubuh yg dijadikan nutrisi dan disalurkan jd energi kayak digestion pd umumnya, sis.

Saya baru aja mau beli garcinia forte.. Yg asli tapi takut ditipu. Efeknya mebs jd gak teratur. Tidak menyebabkan jantung berdebar, buang2 air, dehidrasi, ataupun rahim kering. Produk yg saya jual adlh quality products originally manufactured in the USA. Forte buatan indonesia dan banyak yg komplain karna berat tidak turun tidak bisa klaim garansi karna cs tidak dapat dihubungi dan botol forte tidak meyakinkan karna tidak jelas komposisi extract garcinianya.

Jujur saya sangat tertarik sekali….. Garcinia cambogia adalah penekan nafsu makan yang sangat efektif, meningkatkan pembakaran lemak, menurunkan kecenderungan tubuh untuk menyimpan cadangan lemak juga meningkatkan metabolisme, meningkatkan produksi serotonin ketika suasana hati kita buruk.

Sis mau nanya dunk apakah bnr iklan di fb itu y. Krn sya bru di tlpon ktnya 1 btl isi 15 kapsul sdgkan sya bca itu 60 dan mau liat asli gknya dimn y. Apakah sudah ada dipasaran produk ini seperti di apotek? Kalau blm, bagaimana cara pesannya? Gan mw tanya apa jaminan setelah konsumsi ini untuk jangka panjang tidak ada effek samping masalah kesehata sampai umur tua. Maaf, bulan kemarin sy beli Garcini Cambogia Forte 3 botol seharga 1. Sy sdh habiskan 2 botol dan skrng botol ke 3 jg sdh hampir habis namun berat badan sy tdk turun 1kg pun.

Sy sangat kecewa dgn hal ini. Apakah sy bs minta ganti rugi? Atau ada tindakan apa yg dilakukan oleh pihak Garcinia Cambogia utk mnangani hal ini.

Sy akan krm botol kosong aja atau gmna. Pengen sekali bisa turun sekitar 15 kg.. Maaf mengganggu tanya, harganya 1 botol skrg berapa? Karena saya scroll dari atas ke bawah kok beda…. Pesan kontak kemana ka? Btw sy gag bs telan obat nih, bs dibuka kapsulnya dan diminum langsung isinya ga?

Banyak yg menawarkan produk ini, ragu dengan keasliannya. Buatan indonesia…baca ulasan saya ttg penipuan garcinia cambogia forte yah.. Gan Selama mnm Gracinia cambogia ada pantangan nya? Spt tdk blh mnm kopi, teh atau makan apa? Selama bln puasa tetap aman kah? Tanpa diimbangi mnm air putih yg byk.

Krn sy punya target 15kg nih Thanks. Pantangan resminya tidak ada tp biasanya obat herbal gini lebih baik pantang yg dingin2 dan manis terlebih dulu. Mau tnya bgmn cara dietnya dan pola makannya bagaimana ya.. Kalau diet dengan garcinia cambogia, pola makannya cukup diubah saja jadi lebih banyak yang raw food..

Mau tanya, saat ini saya minum monuka madu new zeland pagi hari 1 sendok, siang dan malam setelah makan saya minum omega3 dan kapsul bawang putih, apakah aman dicampur dg herbal ini? Sy sdh transfer dan sdh mengisi aplikasi yg tertera tp wkt mau dsdh di submot kok sy ga dapat balasan email. Nanti kami akan segera melakukan pengecekan dan pengiriman,, thx ya.

Saya bru liat iklan di web. Tetngga sebelah garcinia combagia forte nie no hp nya Ini penipuan bukan ya? Katanya barang dtng 4hri ato 7 hri kerja brng byr dgn kurirnya. Saya baru liat iklan ini, dan tertarik untuk mencoba. Apakah produk ini benar-benar efektif?

Saya sudah add di WA, tapi kok tidak ada jawaban ya sist? Apa ini bisa berpengaruh untuk mengecilkan paha?? Dan membuat tubuh kencang tidak bergelambir?? Dengan supplement lain diberi jarak 1 jam. Dengan obat dokter diberi jarak 2 jam. Saya baru saja di tlpn untuk pemesanan yg gc forte,sptnya saya ragu stelah liat2 intrnet trnyata plsu. Bgmn ya kira2 cara membatalkan psanan itu sdangkan nmr tlp yg msk tdk bs di hub lg. Saya sdh berulang coba minum obt diet tpi gk ada yg brhasil…pdhl dh ikut senam juga jga pola mkn tpi ko ttp gk bisa trun…mhon solusinya sist.

Kalau benar2 serius kasusnya, utk makanan: Jd agak dikit sawan ni,takutnya bukan yg asli ni.. Obat ini untuk menekan nafsu makan cara minumnya setelah makan atau sebelum makan, dan biasa obt begini menyebabkan jantung berdebar, mual karena ditekan nafsu makan dan sulit tidur?

Supplement dengan fitur Appetite Suppressant seperti Garcinia Cambogia ini diminumnya tentu sebelum makan menit selumnya. Untuk meluruskan, kami GarciniaCambogiaIndonesia.

Itu memang modus operandi mereka: Meskipun brng dtg sya tdak akn membyarny krn sya sdh membatalkn saat itu jg melalui sms k np yg mnghngi sya.

Buat agan2 dan sista2 lain yg baca ini: Bisa Buat Cowo Ngga? Kalo Kena Asma Aman Gk? Utk keaslian produk, kami hanya bisa menjamin produk2 yg kami jual di website ini GarciniaCambogiaIndonesia. Ya terserah mereka mau CoD atau mau dibayar minggu depan.

Jika tidak terima, silakan angkat kaki. Risiko tanggung sendiri ya gan. Atas nama Hanna SW di Cirebon, Garcinia 2pcs sudah dikirim di hari yg sama ya gan 11 Sep dengan resi yg bisa dicek online di sini: Semoga berhasil kayak yg lain yaa! Apakah bs pake suplemen ini? Mau nanya ini expiredx brapa lama ya cz dibawah botolx tglx g jelas sama sekali barang baru datang tadi. Kalo mau foto yg jelasnya, bisa WA ke nomor biasa ya gan. Cara kerja GC adalah 1 sebagai Fat Burner: Saya kena tipu beli produk garcinia.

Produk palsu kotaknya warna ungu gak ada BPOM. Produk abal2 buatan Indonesia. Saya jadi takut gak mau lg beli gracinia. Kl dr USA pasti semua botol tulisannya bahasa inggris, ada barcode dan ada tulisan keterangan pabrik USA nya d kota apa.

Saya jg baru kena tipu beli gracinia botolnya warna putih campur ungu, isi di dlmnya kapsul warna merah. Pdhl saya kena 1, 2jt loh beli 2 botol. Saya jadi buang itu obat takut kena racun. Saya hubungi nomornya gak aktif lg. Saya gak tahu mau percaya sm sapa beli produk yg asli, udh byk modus penipuan skrg. Mendingan olahraga dan atur pola mkn ajalah. Astaga byk jg korban penipuan ya, saya jadi takut beli gracinia. Apa ini produk asli Amerika? Soalnya byk produk tiruan skrg dgn menjanjikan bisa bikin langsing.

Gracinia asli harus bisa buktikan nih produk asli yg mana, ntar namanya bisa jatuh loh krn byk pihak yg tdk bertanggung jawab gunakan nama Gracinia. Bedainnya gampang kok Kl dr USA pasti semua botol tulisannya bahasa inggris, ada barcode dan ada tulisan keterangan pabrik USA nya d kota apa. Obat Gracinia bisa beneran bikin langsing gak? Ini asli kan mba buatan Amerika? Brp lama jangka waktu bisa bikin kurus? Iyaa,, ready stock,,, efektif banget untuk menguruskan dan melangsingka badan.

Maaf mbak tadi saya ditelpon ngakunya jual graciana apa betul itu…dan jualnya harus peepaket pemakaian, paket minimal 3 botol dengan harga rb untuk pemakaian 45 hari dan paket maksimal 6 botol dengan harga rb untuk pemakaian 3 bulan…apa mbak yg hubungi saya tadi.. Mgk saya kena tipu.. Wahhh iya betul kok sama sy jg dsuru beli 3 botol jg, harga Gan saya pernah di tlpn dengan bernama iksan. Katanya barang herbal ini tidak dijual di toko2 online sprti bukalapak dan tokopedia..

Krna takut penipuan ktanya.. Jd yang bnr yang mana.. Ok mungkin pngriman dkrim tp apakah brag bisa sma. Pembuatan di india bru ke us. Trus tlong pnjlasan mana yg bnar. Di zaman internet yg serba cepat dan serba canggih ini, siapapun bisa ngomong apapun gan, bebas.

Namun tetap butuh beberapa ons OTAK utk membedakan siapa bohong, siapa jujur. Kalau ada yg bilang beli baju Superman, agan bisa terbang.. Kalau ada yg bilang beli GC di sini, agan masuk neraka.. Tahukah agan, kalo buyer2 mereka yg udah beli duit udah masuk di rekening mereka dioper semua ke sini, dikasih nomor Hp kita, supaya kita yg babak-belur dikomplainin buyer2 mereka?

Mereka yg dapat duit, kita yg dapat SIAL..?? Price List Garcinia 1 botol rb 2 botol rb diskon jd rb 3 botol rb 4 botol rb 6 botol rb 1 botol isi 60 capsul.

Apakah bisa untuk anak usia 12 th,tinggi dan BB 75kg.. Recommended age 18 tahun ke atas utk mulai diet apapun atau minum supplement diet apapun ya sis…. Saya cek di web sebelah kok itu tulisan merk nya garcinia cambogia fortex. Terus kemasannya juga beda. Yang asli yg mana ya? Bagaimana juga kita bisa membedakan yang asli dengan yg palsu. Di web sebelah harga nya 1jt an. Eh gan, saya sudah baca artikel saham terkait membongkar penipuan harusnya cambogia forte.

Selain dari hamil, tekanan emosi juga sebab yang lazim bagi ketiadaan haid di kalangan wanita yang sebelum itu kedatangan haidnya adalah normal. Emosi ini bertindak pada bahagian otak yang mengawal, pelepasan hormon, kebimbangan kerana hamil yang tidak diingini, pergaduhan dengan orang yang dicintai, kerja baru yang sukar, perjalanan jauh.. Dalam erti kata lain, ia disebabkan tekanan emosi.

Ramai wanita hamil terasa buah dada menjadi besar dan tidak selesa. Sesetengah wanita mengalami sakit di bahagian payudara dan bengkak. Perubahan pada payudara ini disebabkan oleh hormon seks betina estrogen dan progestron yang dihasilkan oleh plasenta. Hormon2 ini menyebabkan pertumbuhan salur dan pundi susu pada buah dada dan menyebabkan lemak2 terlonggok di sekitarnya.

Rasa berdenyut2 dan semut2an yang berlaku sekali sekala adalah disebabkan oleh bertambahnya pengaliran darah melalui salur darah yang membekalkan darah ke buah dada. Selain itu, aerola payudara akan berubah menjadi gelap. Bagaimanapun kadang2 ia menjadi lebih teruk pada bila2 masa.

Keadaan ini biasanya berlaku 2 minggu selepas ketiadaan haid dan berlanjutan sehingga 6 hingga 8 minggu. Sebab berlakunya keadan ini adalah kesan daripada peningkatan aktiviti hormon yang mencetuskan toksin di dalam badan. Loya biasanya hilang menjelang minggu ke ketika badan sudah dapat menyesuaikan diri dengan aras hormon yang tinggi. Namun penyebab mengapa ada sesetengah wanita hamil mengalaminya dan ada yang tidak, tidak dapat pula dikenal pasti puncanya.

Satu lagi tanda kehamilan yang biasa iailah perut kembung. Ada juga wanita mengalami masalah perut kembung sepanjang haid. Sakit belakang, kerap buang air, kepanasan dan kekejangan kaki juga tanda kehamilan yang biasa.

Dalam peringkat awal kehamilan ginjal bekerja kuat menyebabkan pundi kencing lebih cepat terisi air kencing. Ini pula akan menyebabkan kekerapan membuang air kencing. Peringkat ini ibu2 mengandung perlu berjumpa doktor untuk memastikan kedudukan bayi dalam kandungan benar2 selamat. Untuk mengurangkan kekerapan membuang air ketika tidur dan lain-lain, wanita hamil disarankan supaya menyondong ke hadapan sedikit semasa duduk atas mangkuk tandas ketika kencing.

Ini akan menyebabkan pundi kencing ditekan sedikit supaya saki baki air kecil itu di keluarkan semuanya. Wanita hamil juga mungkin mudah letih terutamanya di siang hari kerana tubuh terpaksa menerima beban kehamilan di samping beban yang sedia ada. Jadi, cuba dapatkan rehat yang secukupnya. Anda juga dinasihatkan agar mandi sekerap yang mungkin ketika cuaca yang panas terik.

Wanita hamil mungkin mudah mengalami perubahan emosi seperti cepat tersentuh, mudah terasa, mudah marah malah lebih teruk lagi berasa dingin untuk melakukan hubungan kelamin. Dalam keadaan tertentu, terdapat golongan wanita hamil mengalami masalah untuk makan kerana mereka seolah-olah hilang selera terhadap sesuatu makan.

Masalah ini terjadi kebiasaannya disebabkan kekurangan zink dalam tubuh menyebabkan sesetengah makanan, bau atau rasa makanan menjadi ganjil ketika hamil. Jadi, pastikan anda mendapat bekalan zink yang mencukupi dalam setiap menu makanan. It is practically insoluble in water whereas hydrochloride salt is water-soluble. Smoking freebase cocaine has the additional effect of releasing methylecgonidine into the user's system due to the pyrolysis of the substance a side effect which insufflating or injecting powder cocaine does not create.

Some research suggests that smoking freebase cocaine can be even more cardiotoxic than other routes of administration [71] because of methylecgonidine's effects on lung tissue [72] and liver tissue. Pure cocaine is prepared by neutralizing its compounding salt with an alkaline solution, which will precipitate to non-polar basic cocaine. It is further refined through aqueous-solvent liquid—liquid extraction.

The "freebase" and "crack" forms of cocaine are usually administered by vaporization of the powdered substance into smoke, which is then inhaled. The origin of the name "crack" comes from the "crackling" sound and hence the onomatopoeic moniker "crack" that is produced when the cocaine and its impurities i. This effectively destroys some of the cocaine and yields a sharp, acrid, and foul-tasting smoke.

Smoking or vaporizing cocaine and inhaling it into the lungs produces an almost immediate "high" that can be very powerful and addicting quite rapidly — this initial crescendo of stimulation is known as a "rush".

While the stimulating effects may last for hours, the euphoric sensation is very brief, prompting the user to smoke more immediately. Coca herbal infusion also referred to as coca tea is used in coca-leaf producing countries much as any herbal medicinal infusion would elsewhere in the world. The free and legal commercialization of dried coca leaves under the form of filtration bags to be used as "coca tea" has been actively promoted by the governments of Peru and Bolivia for many years as a drink having medicinal powers.

Visitors to the city of Cuzco in Peru, and La Paz in Bolivia are greeted with the offering of coca leaf infusions prepared in teapots with whole coca leaves purportedly to help the newly arrived traveler overcome the malaise of high altitude sickness. The effects of drinking coca tea are a mild stimulation and mood lift.

It does not produce any significant numbing of the mouth nor does it give a rush like snorting cocaine. In order to prevent the demonization of this product, its promoters publicize the unproven concept that much of the effect of the ingestion of coca leaf infusion would come from the secondary alkaloids, as being not only quantitatively different from pure cocaine but also qualitatively different.

It has been promoted as an adjuvant for the treatment of cocaine dependence. In one controversial study, coca leaf infusion was used—in addition to counseling—to treat 23 addicted coca-paste smokers in Lima , Peru. Relapses fell from an average of four times per month before treatment with coca tea to one during the treatment. These results suggest that the administration of coca leaf infusion plus counseling would be an effective method for preventing relapse during treatment for cocaine addiction.

Importantly, these results also suggest strongly that the primary pharmacologically active metabolite in coca leaf infusions is actually cocaine and not the secondary alkaloids. The cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine can be detected in the urine of people a few hours after drinking one cup of coca leaf infusion.

The first synthesis and elucidation of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in Since then, Robert Robinson and Edward Leete have made significant contributions to the mechanism of the synthesis. The second addition occurs through a Claisen condensation. This produces a racemic mixture of the 2-substituted pyrrolidine, with the retention of the thioester from the Claisen condensation. In formation of tropinone from racemic ethyl [2,C 2 ] 4 Nmethylpyrrolidinyl oxobutanoate there is no preference for either stereoisomer.

The stereoselectivity of this reaction was further investigated through study of prochiral methylene hydrogen discrimination. The benzoyl moiety required for the formation of the cocaine diester is synthesized from phenylalanine via cinnamic acid. The biosynthesis begins with L- Glutamine , which is derived to L- ornithine in plants. The major contribution of L-ornithine and L- arginine as a precursor to the tropane ring was confirmed by Edward Leete.

In animals, however, the urea cycle derives putrescine from ornithine. L-ornithine is converted to L-arginine, [85] which is then decarboxylated via PLP to form agmatine. Hydrolysis of the imine derives N -carbamoylputrescine followed with hydrolysis of the urea to form putrescine.

The separate pathways of converting ornithine to putrescine in plants and animals have converged. A SAM-dependent N -methylation of putrescine gives the N -methylputrescine product, which then undergoes oxidative deamination by the action of diamine oxidase to yield the aminoaldehyde. The biosynthesis of the tropane alkaloid , however, is still uncertain. Hemscheidt proposes that Robinson's acetonedicarboxylate emerges as a potential intermediate for this reaction.

Decarboxylation leads to tropane alkaloid formation. The reduction of tropinone is mediated by NADPH -dependent reductase enzymes, which have been characterized in multiple plant species. Cocaine and its major metabolites may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to monitor for abuse, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning, or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death.

Most commercial cocaine immunoassay screening tests cross-react appreciably with the major cocaine metabolites, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances.

When interpreting the results of a test, it is important to consider the cocaine usage history of the individual, since a chronic user can develop tolerance to doses that would incapacitate a cocaine-naive individual, and the chronic user often has high baseline values of the metabolites in his system. Cautious interpretation of testing results may allow a distinction between passive or active usage, and between smoking versus other routes of administration.

Similar claims have been made in web forums on that topic. According to a United Nations report, England and Wales are the countries with the highest rate of cocaine usage 2. Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in Europe behind cannabis. Since the mids, overall cocaine usage in Europe has been on the rise, but usage rates and attitudes tend to vary between countries.

Approximately 12 million Europeans 3. Usage is particularly prevalent among this demographic: The ratio of male to female users is approximately 3. In London had the highest amount of cocaine in its sewage out of 50 European cities. Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States behind cannabis [95] and the U. It is also popular amongst college students, as a party drug. A study throughout the entire United States has reported that around 48 percent of people who graduated high school in have used cocaine recreationally during some point in their lifetime, compared to approximately 20 percent of students who graduated between the years of and In the s and s, the drug became particularly popular in the disco culture as cocaine usage was very common and popular in many discos such as Studio For over a thousand years South American indigenous peoples have chewed the leaves of Erythroxylon coca , a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids , including cocaine.

The coca leaf was, and still is, chewed almost universally by some indigenous communities. The remains of coca leaves have been found with ancient Peruvian mummies, and pottery from the time period depicts humans with bulged cheeks, indicating the presence of something on which they are chewing.

When the Spanish arrived in South America , most at first ignored aboriginal claims that the leaf gave them strength and energy, and declared the practice of chewing it the work of the Devil. When they wished to make themselves drunk and out of judgment they chewed a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves which make them go as they were out of their wittes.

In , Padre Blas Valera wrote:. Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots. And if it does so much for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those who eat it?

Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until Various European scientists had attempted to isolate cocaine, but none had been successful for two reasons: The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in Gaedcke named the alkaloid "erythroxyline", and published a description in the journal Archiv der Pharmazie.

In , Friedrich Wöhler asked Dr. Carl Scherzer , a scientist aboard the Novara an Austrian frigate sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe , to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from South America. In , the ship finished its travels and Wöhler received a trunk full of coca. Wöhler passed on the leaves to Albert Niemann , a Ph. Niemann described every step he took to isolate cocaine in his dissertation titled Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves , which was published in —it earned him his Ph.

He wrote of the alkaloid's "colourless transparent prisms" and said that "Its solutions have an alkaline reaction, a bitter taste, promote the flow of saliva and leave a peculiar numbness, followed by a sense of cold when applied to the tongue.

The first synthesis and elucidation of the structure of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to exploit the possible uses of this plant. In , Vassili von Anrep, of the University of Würzburg , devised an experiment to demonstrate the analgesic properties of the newly discovered alkaloid.

He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, with the other containing merely salt water. He then submerged a frog's legs into the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control solution, and proceeded to stimulate the legs in several different ways. The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very differently from the leg that had been immersed in salt water.

Karl Koller a close associate of Sigmund Freud , who would write about cocaine later experimented with cocaine for ophthalmic usage. In an infamous experiment in , he experimented upon himself by applying a cocaine solution to his own eye and then pricking it with pins.

His findings were presented to the Heidelberg Ophthalmological Society. Also in , Jellinek demonstrated the effects of cocaine as a respiratory system anesthetic. In , William Halsted demonstrated nerve-block anesthesia, [] and James Leonard Corning demonstrated peridural anesthesia. In , an Italian doctor , Paolo Mantegazza , returned from Peru , where he had witnessed first-hand the use of coca by the local indigenous peoples.

He proceeded to experiment on himself and upon his return to Milan he wrote a paper in which he described the effects. In this paper he declared coca and cocaine at the time they were assumed to be the same as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of "a furred tongue in the morning, flatulence , and whitening of the teeth.

A chemist named Angelo Mariani who read Mantegazza's paper became immediately intrigued with coca and its economic potential. In , Mariani started marketing a wine called Vin Mariani , which had been treated with coca leaves, to become cocawine. The ethanol in wine acted as a solvent and extracted the cocaine from the coca leaves, altering the drink's effect. A "pinch of coca leaves" was included in John Styth Pemberton 's original recipe for Coca-Cola , though the company began using decocainized leaves in when the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed.

In cocaine began to be used to treat morphine addiction. Cocaine was introduced into clinical use as a local anesthetic in Germany in , about the same time as Sigmund Freud published his work Über Coca , in which he wrote that cocaine causes: Exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which in no way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person.

You perceive an increase of self-control and possess more vitality and capacity for work. In other words, you are simply normal, and it is soon hard to believe you are under the influence of any drug. Long intensive physical work is performed without any fatigue. This result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant after-effects that follow exhilaration brought about by alcoholic beverages.

No craving for the further use of cocaine appears after the first, or even after repeated taking of the drug. In the U. The company promised that its cocaine products would "supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and render the sufferer insensitive to pain. By the late Victorian era , cocaine use had appeared as a vice in literature. For example, it was injected by Arthur Conan Doyle 's fictional Sherlock Holmes , generally to offset the boredom he felt when he was not working on a case.

In early 20th-century Memphis, Tennessee , cocaine was sold in neighborhood drugstores on Beale Street , costing five or ten cents for a small boxful. Stevedores along the Mississippi River used the drug as a stimulant, and white employers encouraged its use by black laborers. During the mids, amidst World War II, cocaine was considered for inclusion as an ingredient of a future generation of 'pep pills' for the German military, code named D-IX.

In modern popular culture references to the drug are prevalent, in it the drug has a glamorous image associated with the rich, famous and powerful with it also making users to "feel rich and beautiful". In many countries, cocaine is a popular recreational drug. In the United States, the development of "crack" cocaine introduced the substance to a generally poorer inner-city market.

Use of the powder form has stayed relatively constant, experiencing a new height of use during the late s and early s in the U. Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic, social, political, religious, and livelihood.

Cocaine's status as a club drug shows its immense popularity among the "party crowd". However, a decision by an American representative in the World Health Assembly banned the publication of the study, because it seemed to make a case for the positive uses of cocaine. An excerpt of the report strongly conflicted with accepted paradigms, for example "that occasional cocaine use does not typically lead to severe or even minor physical or social problems.

This led to the decision to discontinue publication. A part of the study was recuperated and published in , including profiles of cocaine use in 20 countries, but are unavailable as of [update].

In October it was reported that the use of cocaine in Australia has doubled since monitoring began in A problem with illegal cocaine use, especially in the higher volumes used to combat fatigue rather than increase euphoria by long-term users, is the risk of ill effects or damage caused by the compounds used in adulteration.

The normal adulterants for profit are inactive sugars, usually mannitol, creatine or glucose, so introducing active adulterants gives the illusion of purity and to 'stretch' or make it so a dealer can sell more product than without the adulterants. The production, distribution, and sale of cocaine products is restricted and illegal in most contexts in most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs , and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

In the United States the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine are additionally regulated by the Controlled Substances Act. Some countries, such as Peru and Bolivia permit the cultivation of coca leaf for traditional consumption by the local indigenous population , but nevertheless, prohibit the production, sale, and consumption of cocaine.

The US federal government instituted a national labeling requirement for cocaine and cocaine-containing products through the Pure Food and Drug Act of While this act is often seen as the start of prohibition, the act itself was not actually a prohibition on cocaine, but instead set up a regulatory and licensing regime.

In , according to the United Nations , tonnes of cocaine were seized globally by law enforcement authorities. Because of the drug's potential for addiction and overdose, cocaine is generally treated as a " hard drug ", with severe penalties for possession and trafficking.

Demand remains high, and consequently, black market cocaine is quite expensive. Unprocessed cocaine, such as coca leaves , are occasionally purchased and sold, but this is exceedingly rare as it is much easier and more profitable to conceal and smuggle it in powdered form.

The scale of the market is immense: Until , Colombia was the world's leading producer of cocaine. This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mids. Coca is grown for traditional purposes by indigenous communities, a use which is still present and is permitted by Colombian laws only makes up a small fragment of total coca production, most of which is used for the illegal drug trade.

An interview with a coca farmer published in described a mode of production by acid-base extraction that has changed little since The leaves were dried for half a day, then chopped into small pieces with a string trimmer and sprinkled with a small amount of powdered cement replacing sodium carbonate from former times. Once powdered caustic soda was added to this, the cocaine precipitated and could be removed by filtration through a cloth.

The resulting material, when dried, was termed pasta and sold by the farmer. Repeated recrystallization from solvents, producing pasta lavada and eventually crystalline cocaine were performed at specialized laboratories after the sale. Attempts to eradicate coca fields through the use of defoliants have devastated part of the farming economy in some coca growing regions of Colombia, and strains appear to have been developed that are more resistant or immune to their use.

Whether these strains are natural mutations or the product of human tampering is unclear. These strains have also shown to be more potent than those previously grown, increasing profits for the drug cartels responsible for the exporting of cocaine.

Although production fell temporarily, coca crops rebounded in numerous smaller fields in Colombia, rather than the larger plantations. The cultivation of coca has become an attractive economic decision for many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, the spread of new strains of the coca plant due to persistent worldwide demand.

The latest estimate provided by the U. As of the end of , the seizure operations of Colombian cocaine carried out in different countries have totaled Department of State's estimates. Synthetic cocaine would be highly desirable to the illegal drug industry as it would eliminate the high visibility and low reliability of offshore sources and international smuggling, replacing them with clandestine domestic laboratories, as are common for illicit methamphetamine.

However, natural cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine. Actual full synthesis of cocaine is rarely done. Formation of inactive stereoisomers cocaine has 4 chiral centres — 1 R , 2 R , 3 S , and 5 S , 2 of them dependent, hence a total potential of 8 possible stereoisomers plus synthetic by-products limits the yield and purity.

Organized criminal gangs operating on a large scale dominate the cocaine trade. As of [update] , cocaine shipments from South America transported through Mexico or Central America were generally moved over land or by air to staging sites in northern Mexico.

The cocaine is then broken down into smaller loads for smuggling across the U. The primary cocaine importation points in the United States have been in Arizona , southern California , southern Florida , and Texas. Typically, land vehicles are driven across the U. Sixty-five percent of cocaine enters the United States through Mexico, and the vast majority of the rest enters through Florida. Cocaine traffickers from Colombia and Mexico have established a labyrinth of smuggling routes throughout the Caribbean, the Bahama Island chain, and South Florida.

They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug using a variety of smuggling techniques to U. Another route of cocaine traffic goes through Chile, which is primarily used for cocaine produced in Bolivia since the nearest seaports lie in northern Chile.

While the price of cocaine is higher in Chile than in Peru and Bolivia, the final destination is usually Europe, especially Spain where drug dealing networks exist among South American immigrants. Cocaine is also carried in small, concealed, kilogram quantities across the border by couriers known as " mules " or "mulas" , who cross a border either legally, for example, through a port or airport, or illegally elsewhere.

The drugs may be strapped to the waist or legs or hidden in bags, or hidden in the body. If the mule gets through without being caught, the gangs will reap most of the profits.

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