AVIAN Defined for English Language Learners
An exciting and rare opportunity has opened up due to one of our fieldsman reaching retirement age! Rather, broad topic headings to maintain the ease of access and use. Composting Livestock Mortality and Butcher Waste includes " Bones have very vital functions, not only for structure of the organism but also for protection as well as for being a vessel for the bone factory. The Saurichians then diverged into Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha Figure modified a bit from Benton et al. Physical description; Three-piece horse and cattle brand series; Crossbranding; Positions for branding horses and cattle; etc
Example sentences containing 'poultry'
Estimated number of birds killed by house cats Felis catus in Canada. Avian Conservation and Ecology 8 2: ABSTRACT Predation by house cats Felis catus is one of the largest human-related sources of mortality for wild birds in the United States and elsewhere, and has been implicated in extinctions and population declines of several species. However, relatively little is known about this topic in Canada.
The objectives of this study were to provide plausible estimates for the number of birds killed by house cats in Canada, identify information that would help improve those estimates, and identify species potentially vulnerable to population impacts.
This range of estimates is based on surveys indicating that Canadians own about 8. Is our government sourcing only UK pig meat or indeed any UK pig meat? Wake up AHDB, idealistic theorising is all well and good but only product development and marketing will bring stability.
We are at the mercy of currency fluctuations in a price conscious market environment. Like many other supply side businesses we are in wind down mode today and will probably finish a bit early.
The nearest the rest of us get to it is with our children and pets and it's not quite the same is it? For our part we do attend our offices over the holiday period to get some important stock take and facilities clearing up work done while it's quiet. It's surprising how many calls we get which start: It's been a busy year and my sense is that our industry has entered a new professional era. I know there are many businesses out there that will consider this period started some time ago; I also know there are farms out there that will somewhat rue the day pig farming became a business with all its regulation, compliance, mechanisation and automation.
But times move on and what I value is that we still have an independent sector populassed with good people who take their responsibilities seriously and work damned hard to provide quality food and respect the welfare of the animals in their care. We'll go on doing our best to provide products and services that assist in that endeavour and between us we can be very proud of what the British pig Industry stands for and particularly proud of our representative body the NPA which approaches its 20th anniversary.
When the time comes, make sure you vote for your sector representatives and ensure we get a big turnout to strengthen the hand of the association as we navigate the road through Brexit towards the development of a profitable, sustainable, responsible and professional industry.
Foolishly, I asked Zoe if I could check or alter it before giving the presentation. At this early stage of my Producer Group stint, I learnt the reality of the great depth of knowledge of the team that runs our NPA. There was no way I could have written the presentation as well as Zoe did, and I did not change a thing. As a producer group, we meet five times a year to give advice and guide our NPA officers and see the issues that have to be dealt with.
There is always a long list of issues, and it is fair to say the group never has a dull meeting and that the NPA team always have plenty on their plates. This all highlights that we have a team on our side who react very quickly and promote the pig producer side of any argument.
Such as it is, our industry would be in a totally different place if the issues of the day, week, or longer term were not dealt with in a professional and prompt manner. I urge all producers to support the NPA in any way they can — whether this be joining it or standing or voting in the Producer Group election. You can also see who has already submitted nominations and view the election rules.
And while you're there, you can take a look at Digby's comprehensive history of the NPA - a reminder of the organisation's roots and what it stands for.
Please consider standing as a candidate in the forthcoming elections. The process is simple and can be done on line. You need a couple of other Allied Industry members to support you, a brief manifesto statement and a mug shot. There are Allied Industry members at present - all companies trading in the UK pig sector. That's as many as we've ever had since the heady days of the section within the BPA when we just about made our target of company members.
I can't stress enough how important it is for the NPA to maintain its democratic ways and unique prime production side representation of UK pork. It means the NPA is listened to and respected which in turn means the sector has a better chance of prospering as we approach Brexit. Serving as an elected member of the AIG is interesting, informative, commercially advantageous and fun. What's not to like? Please think about helping to provide the support the association's excellent staff need to ensure the industry we all work in has an exciting, innovative and world class future producing wholesome, safe and tasty pork.
If anyone considering standing wants to know more about it, don't hesitate to contact me: We ain't gone away you naughty Supermarkets But there are some very good Supermarkets out there now who deserve supporting. Thanks Karl for the recommendation of the flexible hose. This is well recommended by those in the industry, but I believe it requires indeterminate labour which I would like to avoid if possible. Placed on the floor next to the food trough, the sow and her piglets I am told can both drink copiously, teaching the piglets to drink.
Presently I have split troughs, with a vacuum valve to control the water level for the sow, with a mini nipple for the piglets, the meal being delivered through Gestal feeders. This works adequately but is a tad more expensive. Have found that using a 25mm flexible hose and tap running the length of the house allows you to give supplementary water.
The sows will always eat more if the dry feed is more like a porridge and they are not having to work for their water through a nipple.
Nipples are fine for the piglets with a separate header tank to allow for any medication. Cube drinkers are an option although the water can get dirty. We are about to build a new farrowing shed and would like ideas around delivering sufficient water volume to piglets and sows on a dry fed system in a fully slatted farrowing crate. Looking for a working manager. The unit is situated on a mixed farm in the Brecon Beacons. We are having some ridiculous restrictions imposed on our farms following what are likely to be avian TB lesions identified at slaughter.
It takes a minimum of 8 weeks for culture to come back negative for bovine TB during which time pigs have to be slaughtered at the end of specific days or in specific abattoirs with carcass ineligible for Chinese export. They then re-culture again which takes a further 8 weeks making a total of 16 weeks minimum per case of avian TB.
The original notes for guidance about the Chinese export are clear that avian TB WAS NOT to be regarded as a problem but Advisers in the TB department who fail to understand our industry have unilaterally decided to impose these draconian rules.
This is a new position within Wayland Farms complete with new equipment and in-pig gilts that will commence batch farrowing in November You will be actively involved with all areas of the pig breeding unit in order to meet the business requirements for the company. Email or post CV and covering letter to ccfn. Are you taking part in Farm24 on the 10th August ? If you're interested in sharing please contact me at the NPA office.
Due to expansion we are looking for a forward thinking, hard working individual to join our team on our progressive outdoor breeding unit. We are looking for someone who has a real passion for outdoor pig production and wants to make a difference.
Experience is preferable but a genuine desire to get up and go and keep moving the unit forward is more important. I am unable to attend as away on holiday that week, so if anyone I know from the pig industry is going please represent me. Sad to hear about Jon Roads. He was always a big supporter of the pig industry never more so than during the dark days of the late nineties early noughties when he would travel long distances to support demonstrations.
Founded over 40 years ago and operating out of two main centers, Wallingford Oxon and Selby North Yorkshire, it has developed into being the only truly national pig marketing co-op trading on behalf of pig producers close to 3 million head of stock per annum. Due to continued growth and succession planning the company is seeking applicants for the position of Livestock Trader Account Manager to join the existing team. The successful applicant will have to be enthusiastic, hardworking and operate with integrity.
A team player with the ability to communicate both accurately and at all levels across the industry will be essential skills. Please forward your application accompanied with your CV for the attention of Mr. Woodall General Manager at the address below. There is, I suppose, always a bit of a risk, given the relatively comfortable position the industry currently finds itself in, for a kind of apathy to prevail.
It would also be an unforgivable missed opportunity to recognise one of those fantastic people who have and continue to go the extra mile for our British Pig Industry. To nominate click here. No agreement yet on exporting trotters to mainland China. It is still with the Chinese authorities. Regular contact is being made with the relevant people in Beijing to press our case.
I would urge all pig producers to contact their parliamentary candidates reference the NPA manifesto recently mailed out to all members. The government decided to hold an election to get a clear mandate for Brexit negotiations. That gives us a big opportunity to lay the pig industry marker down for Brexit.
If the government want a mandate for Brexit then it is more legitimate than ever to ask probing questions and get firm commitments on what outcome they are going to fight for. Following news that the licence for the use of Zinc Oxide is to likely to be withdrawn from the market, AHDB Pork is looking for producers who have successfully removed Zinc Oxide from their rations. We would like to work with these producers to make case studies available that demonstrate to the wider industry the range of alternative options available for consideration.
If you wish to remain anonymous you can, we just need to create a picture of how to successfully manage without the use of Zinc Oxide. If you can help with a case study or simply provide some information please get in touch with your KE manager or email pork. The worst lost a bundle however. How many sows did these farmers have? Without such figures these statements are a waste to time. ESVAC is the agreed European standard for reporting antibiotic useage and that is why we are using it.
The ESVAC calculation for the pig sector will be based on the total AB useage divided by the number of finishers sold at an av wt of 65kgs plus the sow numbers at kgs. The weaners transferred are only for benchmarking purposes. As ESVAC number is not effected by liveweight of sold pigs, if you sell pigs at 60kg you will have same number as someone selling at Kg if you us same amount of antibiotic at weaning time but per kg sold its half.
I think the public will not understand ESVAC and doing it by liveweight sold is better, and if pigs are moved from one site to another that number can be transferred as well easily. With reference to the Royal Society paper, at last some scientific sense is emerging even though it is mathematical modelling.
This supports the views of Hurd et al Journal of Food Production The one health approach has always seemed to me to be a bit one sided and this helps to redress the balance of thinking. We are receiving an increasing number of requests from future vets looking for work placements over the summer months. Currently we only have a handful of members who have advised us that they are willing to accept students.
If you are interested in being able to offer a placement usually for two weeks you do not need to be able to provide accommodation please contact me.
All students are vetted excuse the pun! I am representing the NPA on a task force set up to negotiate new antibiotic usage targets for each sector this year. Mark White from the Pig Veterinary Society will provide the veterinary perspective. Through the task force we will commence formal discussions with the Government in June, with a view to reaching agreement by the end of July. The targets will be based on usage, rather than sales, and set from a baseline using industry-wide data collated on the eMB-Pigs database.
Alternatively, you can feed into our consultation anonymously. Simply state in your email that you want your views to remain private. The targets will be discussed at the spring regional meetings dates below , so please come along and make your views known. Getting these targets right is absolutely critical for our sector, which is why we are going to consult as widely as possible within the NPA membership, so as an industry, we can come to a figure that is challenging but achievable.
To read more about why we need to set these targets and how they might work, see this article in Pig World. Robin, apologies for any offence caused by our wording. It has implications for who is allowed in and who isn't under immigration policy. I find the definition extremely offensive. But we have been at pains to make it clear that 'unskilled' is a Government definition that absolutely does not mean 'without skill'! Lizzie and I have made that distinction clear in previous communications, on the website, in media articles and when I appeared in front of the EFRA committee in Parliament.
I hope this goes some way to reassuring you that NPA does not recognise that clumsy and offensive distinction made by Government between 'skilled' and 'unskilled' labour. We value the skill and dedication of our workforce enormously! Health management is one of the key themes for the EU PiG project over the next four years, with year one focusing on optimising the use of antibiotics and biosecurity.
With regard to the risk of removal of ZnO from feed, for the moment at least, the guidance is all around mitigating risk of illness in the herd or within individuals.
How often to you clean the weighing scales, for example? The living environment also has a big part to play. The buildings and environment team can help you understand your buildings, looking at your ventilation and thermal patterns and guiding on how you can optimize the environment for better health. To arrange a visit, contact. Avoiding stomach ulcers will bring benefits for feed utilisation as well as reducing aggression and improving welfare. Lastly, there are dedicated sessions on establishing weaners within the stockman training programme.
Our knowledge exchange colleagues are also available to deliver on farm training, including specific aspects of weaner management, to contact KE email. In the meantime you might want to view the helpful videos on establishing the weaned pig in the practical pig app. An update on eMB. Following feedback, there has been a software update which will now allow retrospective data to be added to the system so users can enter their figures in any order. Lastly, the knowledge exchange team would like to remind producers that they, and others at AHDB, are available to help with any specific questions or difficulties being experienced.
I'm guessing that Tom is, like most of us, already doing or trying to do most of the things you recommend. And currently also using zinc, possibly with other meds immediately post weaning.
Unless we can raise our game beyond what current thinking deems possible we need more ideas and solutions in order to remove zinc without increasing other antimicrobials. Are there novel solutions out there, adopted in other countries, better or different feed ingredients available, improved disinfection techniques,etc.
Or is it a case that the U. Tom, it looks like I need to get those Unifeeders to you quickly. Tom, what an interesting and important question you raise. It is also all embracing and really could be the subject of a book.
What you are asking for are pointers on how to achieve success in probably the most difficult procedure in pig production, which is establishing the weaned pig. If this is achieved effectively, subsequent growth is usually trouble free.
Working on the premise that at weaning the young pig is struggling to adapt physiologically, to establish an acidic environment in the stomach, to stimulate a new array of digestive enzymes, to establish a normal and beneficial gut flora and to develop its immune status, the last thing we should be doing is to give them antimicrobials. So, off the top of my head, the bullet points I would suggest to you are:.
Sadly, whether right or wrong to ban zinc, it is all a bit irrelevant to be honest now if they likely ban it. Obviously as a producer I would have preferred this not to happen especially at a time when we are working our behinds off to reduce antibiotic usage because of the great results we see from its ability to reduce weaner pig scours.
John, using your experience and knowledge give me some bullet point take home steps I can be pushing on my units. Thank you Zoe and Richard for rising to the challenge! I think the problem with the whole subject of AMR is the assessment of actual risk to human health.
The study of AMR has been a fund raiser for University departments since the first Swann Report was published in and it continues to be a source of money for research. Of course it is important and of course antibiotics must be used judiciously and it is right that we control their use in pig production carefully, but I firmly believe that the jury is still out on whether or not the human population has been actually harmed by the use of antimicrobials to control infection in pig production.
If the precautionary principle is applied to agents that have antimicrobial activity, and therefore potentially select resistance, it must be applied to them all. To my mind, the precautionary principle is flawed by lack of science — better not to get out of bed in the morning than risk the vagaries of the day.
Where do we stand with the knowledge that zinc oxide can cause marked perturbation of the gut flora of weaned piglets Starke et al ? Are not the pointers for zinc oxide similar to the pointers for conventional antimicrobials?
I personally believe that the risk of using zinc oxide is low as I believe it is also with the proper use of antimicrobials , but the presence of risk has to be acknowledged. If we are overly risk-averse, which I believe is the case with society in general nowadays, we must treat zinc oxide in the way that we treat other risks. When researchers are unsure of their findings, unsure of their conclusions or they want further funding, they suggest that further research is necessary.
This is fine and is normally an honest assessment. Such is the case with the AMR story and such is the case with zinc oxide Yazdankah et al Disingenuous not, pragmatic yes.
Being on the moral high ground, now that is heady stuff. Good to hear Philip hasn't lost the art of getting free consultancy! Philip when you are doing your refurb of farrowing houses consider putting in Milk Cups from Opticare, we fitted them 20 months ago, using there feeding regime, and most importantly cleaning routines.
We have seen big improvements in growth especially the smaller weaned pigs. At this moment in time, its Win win, win.
In response to your question about sow feeders we are using a very simple ad lib system which seems to work well. We have a standard auto feed line, we use compound pellets , this fills a standard bottle. There is then a steel pipe that extends to the bottom of the trough with an approx 25mm gap at the bottom, you would need a flat bottomed trough. You have to have a different drinker assembly whereby the nipple extends away from the trough so that no water can get in.
The weighted ball that is normally on a string in the bottle is removed so that the sow has free access to the feed.
Yes, some sows will play with the feed and get too much out but overall we are very happy with it and have good results in terms of litter weight and sow condition. We had the luxury of installing this in a place new build having experimented previously in an older building. John, thank you for your helpful contribution, as always. As you will be well aware, one of the points that the CVMP could not be sure on was the contribution of Zinc Oxide to co-selection for resistance because of a lack of evidence.
Whilst we all accept that it would probably need to go at some point, right now is not the time. Our frustration was borne out of the fact that at the moment there is not enough evidence to ban Zinc, whilst there is plenty of evidence to suggest that our antibiotic use is too high and needs to be reduced in a sensible way.
The Government has told us that we have to set challenging reduction targets this year. Pig farmers and their vets have in the main already responded really positively to that challenge, but clearly things will get more difficult which is why the removal of Zinc at the same time will not help! You asked for comment on the Forum about zinc oxide. So, here goes as a debate starter - my comment is unlikely to be popular!
It is disingenuous of NPA to take the moral high ground on antibiotic use but at the same time support the use of zinc oxide. Putting aside any concerns about environment pollution, the primary effect of zinc oxide in pig feed is antibacterial and, as such, it selects resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. Copper sulphate did the same thing and this was known back in the s.
The only difference I suppose is that zinc is used for a short period of time post-weaning, but that is the time when the young pig is struggling to establish beneficial gut flora and allowing resistant bacteria to colonise at this time is probably not a good thing. We too are going to be refurbishing our farrowing rooms.
I take it you are meaning sow feeders? Microware has some interesting piglet feeders. I was wondering if anyone could help advise me on what feeders to use in our farrowing rooms. Or what would you recommend? Surely someone there reads the Forum. Hopefully work is ongoing to improve it's user friendliness. Here in Scotland it has been compulsory to use it in our quality assurance scheme since the end of last year. Quality Meat Scotland would also like us to use it as our on-farm medicine book.
However, so far it has been unfit for this purpose. Let's try and keep the Forum going. Yes, I was also there when TPT visited to lend support to our campaign with Winnie, and recall that Winnie playfully tried to nibble her leg Hugh and I were quite jealous!
I agree with Hugh that she was thoroughly professional and look forward to seeing any photographs that can be found of the occasion. I'm very saddened by the news that Tara Palmer-Tomkinson has died.
I expect quite a few of you will remember her contribution to our cause in in Parliament Square. I confess at the time I was slightly surprised by Shandwick's the company handling the vigil PR choice of celebrity to help boost publicity for the industry's plight but I need not have worried.
Tara was on time, actually knowledgeable about matters agricultural, co-operative and just good fun. She certainly brought the press out.
I have some good pictures of her on the stump with Winnie which I will ask Alistair to post when I have them scanned. Meantime, on behalf of the NPA's then campaign group, my sincere condolences to Tara's family on her untimely death. No pressure at all apparently! Excellent piece on the One Show last night and good job Richard and Duncan. Kershaw clearly nervous of the pigs - but they looked great and the whole thing a very positive message about the pig industry.
An exciting and rare opportunity has opened up due to one of our fieldsman reaching retirement age! Pockmor is a successful and progressive family business who continue to grow through support from their excellent team. The right candidate will have experience with nursery and finishing pigs and will be competent on farm machinery. Dealing with pigs on a number of third party sites round East and North Yorkshire but also looking after 2 of our own sites.
A car, phone and good rate of pay awaits a reliable, loyal and forward thinking person. Please contact Kate for more information. Vet Duncan Berkshire put in an excellent performance and hopefully that will come across. I expect a number of people heard Coilin Nunan interviewed on Farming Today this morning link here.
He of the Alliance to Save Our Antibiotics. It seemed to me that he was rather behind the curve with respect to what the UK pig industry is doing and has achieved in reducing antibiotic use.
If someone like him is as ill-informed as he appeared to be then it clearly highlights the need for the comprehensive action being advocated by the NPA and AHDB Pork. Or perhaps he knows perfectly well and just used the opportunity to mislead in order to keep the pressure on. He credited the poultry sector with success but implied pig industry bodies are in denial about the need even to be taking action. He also said that pig farmers need a change of attitude. Roll on next week when Richard Lister gets the chance to set the record straight.
What severe financial pressures failed to do, Osteoarthritis has managed, to stop me keeping any pigs. Having started in , I have a lot of memories and experiences. If I may I will express my thoughts concerning the decline in fresh pork consumption and tail biting as reported on your website. Since the advent of the EU single Market in , UK pig Farmers have been forced through economic circumstances to increase the weight of finished pigs, to the point where the average deadweight is near 80Kg.
Also Ad lib fed to slaughter. Feed, nothing fancy that will upset the gut. It is said that a pig will eat anything. I share these thoughts of my observations over many years, some most probably will disagree, but I hope it might be of help. The strategy was essential because the British pork industry faced and still faces issues with falling consumption of pork, while the chicken market has enjoyed a sustained period of growth. The next phase will feature Midweek Meals. The goal is to position pork as an ideal choice for midweek meals by creating dishes that are relevant to consumers and meet the midweek meal criteria, which places health, convenience and a less than 30 minute cooking time as priorities.
This is where the biggest challenge lies. Marrying an industry need with a consumer one is a complex task, especially for the midweek meal, where pork currently struggles to feature. It goes without saying that we need to spend levy wisely so we are currently undertaking in depth consumer research to ensure the campaign hits the right mark with the consumer.
We also need the support of processors and retailers and we believe the best time to run this high profile campaign will be September Changing consumer perceptions about pork will take several years to be achieved, and we believe that the best way the industry can do this is for the entire supply chain to work together. The new AHDB strategy document is currently open for consultation. To view the document, visit, http: The latest news item illustrating the decline in pork consumption strengthens again how vital it is that new pork dishes should be developed and brought to the market as soon as possible.
Pulled pork is all well and good but we simply cannot afford to be a one trick pony. I would challenge AHDB to to demonstrate to us exactly what pork dishes are in development, to which market they are being aimed at and when and how they will be launched.
Our thoughts and prayers are with him at this awful time and we want him to know that we are all here for him if we can help in anyway at all.
What a great night again. A huge well done to Simon, John and the Pig world team for putting on another really great event for the British pig industry. Again, many thanks to all our AIG members for their support and making the night such an enjoyable occasion. Another great National Pig Awards event and a big thankyou to John Lewis and his team for allowing us to incorporate the Chris Brant Award into the proceedings.
A self-confessed curmudgeonly, grumpy, old northern git, and initially ambivalent about the awards event, I have to admit that these awards have been a huge success. They have also given the Chris Brant Award the platform it needs to do full justice to those great people who receive it each year.
And never could that be truer than this year when NPA Chairman Richard Lister and his team of wonderful ladies received standing ovations. If we all stop and think about it, we all know they do a cracking job. But what a great opportunity to be able to tell them so. From my vantage point at the front reading the citations I had the benefit of seeing the faces of Richard and his team as, about halfway through each citation, it suddenly dawned on them who I was talking about.
Whilst they do a fantastic job, they all absolutely ooze humility and modesty. The vote to decide the distribution ratio of the finite, statutory levy fund is a vote carrying much import.
Selling more pig meat is the result of successful marketing. Experience indicates that enduringly successful marketing is based, in part, on the story that is told. Science is currently telling a fascinating story of the joining up of discoveries made over many years, that people all over the world will undoubtedly benefit from.
The depth and breadth of the possibilities being explored along the various pathways in the study of the microbiome and DNA are beginning to shine a light on the future for livestock farming, as well as that of humankind. Before we commit to more money for more marketing we need to think about the story we want to tell.
Some of that story will be rooted in the outcome of current and future research and development, proving and disproving, with integrity, meaning and myth. Building trust into our marketing message is a big part of the challenge facing us as an industry, across the board. I do hope that this will be vigorously pursued through to the end and not left in a permanent state of development.
One of the increasingly evident characteristics of pig meat, is its versatility. This application to innovation is a great strength. I agree with Richard it would be good to find a new partner. Today, however, pig meat is being consumed from fine dining through the community of the Barbeque to people on the move.
Top chefs are peppering Facebook, Twitter and Instagram with mouthwatering images of their latest creations across every kind of eating experience.
The food world does engage with pig meat and people engage with the food world. Heritage is one of many things that social media celebrates and as we know every tradition began with innovation, pig meat has history and its versatility continues to maintain its significance in the food chain. It was food on the move.
The egg was soft centered and the meat casing was finely chopped bacon, I am quite partial to a scotch egg and this is the best one I have ever eaten.
This seemed to get bogged with the retailer and its inability to make decisions and get things done. Many thanks to all those that attended and contributed to the regional meetings.
Feedback is hugely appreciated by the team in order to focus direction and understand what issues we need to address. It would appear to me that the current happier prices we are receiving are purely as a result of the weak pound allied to a strong demand from China, blindingly obvious ; this may continue for several months, hopefully , BUT it worries me that UK consumption of pig meat has not increased and EU consumption has fallen.
So, what progress has been made on rectifying this in terms of producing suitable pork dishes for the convenience food market? There was a competition to create a pork ready meal I seem to remember when times were hard a few months ago so I sincerely hope that proper product development is proceeding at pace.
I'm inclined to agree. So for more, go to the members' area. I was privileged to be amongst a well-attended Eastern regional NPA meeting this week. The content and quality of the evening is a credit to Zoe, Lizzie and Georgina. The passion evident in the constructive exchanges of discussion matched that of Victoria Morgan in her post below.
It is grist to the mill. We are capable, as an industry, of success especially when such passion is drawn out. This is what gives our message its integrity and our industry its dignity. There were three general dinosaur faunas in the late Cretaceous. In the northern continents of North America and Asia, the major theropods were tyrannosaurids and various types of smaller maniraptoran theropods, with a predominantly ornithischian herbivore assemblage of hadrosaurids, ceratopsians, ankylosaurids, and pachycephalosaurians.
In the southern continents that had made up the now-splitting Gondwana , abelisaurids were the common theropods, and titanosaurian sauropods the common herbivores. Finally, in Europe, dromaeosaurids, rhabdodontid iguanodontians, nodosaurid ankylosaurians, and titanosaurian sauropods were prevalent.
Theropods were also radiating as herbivores or omnivores , with therizinosaurians and ornithomimosaurians becoming common. The Cretaceous—Paleogene extinction event , which occurred approximately 66 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period, caused the extinction of all dinosaur groups except for the neornithine birds.
Some other diapsid groups, such as crocodilians, sebecosuchians , turtles , lizards , snakes , sphenodontians , and choristoderans , also survived the event. The surviving lineages of neornithine birds, including the ancestors of modern ratites , ducks and chickens , and a variety of waterbirds , diversified rapidly at the beginning of the Paleogene period, entering ecological niches left vacant by the extinction of Mesozoic dinosaur groups such as the arboreal enantiornithines , aquatic hesperornithines , and even the larger terrestrial theropods in the form of Gastornis , eogruiids , bathornithids , ratites , geranoidids , mihirungs , and " terror birds ".
It is often cited that mammals out-competed the neornithines for dominance of most terrestrial niches but many of these groups co-existed with rich mammalian faunas for most of the Cenozoic. Dinosaurs belong to a group known as archosaurs , which also includes modern crocodilians.
Within the archosaur group, dinosaurs are differentiated most noticeably by their gait. Dinosaur legs extend directly beneath the body, whereas the legs of lizards and crocodilians sprawl out to either side.
Collectively, dinosaurs as a clade are divided into two primary branches, Saurischia and Ornithischia. Saurischia includes those taxa sharing a more recent common ancestor with birds than with Ornithischia , while Ornithischia includes all taxa sharing a more recent common ancestor with Triceratops than with Saurischia.
Anatomically, these two groups can be distinguished most noticeably by their pelvic structure. Saurischia includes the theropods exclusively bipedal and with a wide variety of diets and sauropodomorphs long-necked herbivores which include advanced, quadrupedal groups. Unlike birds, the ornithischian pubis also usually had an additional forward-pointing process.
Ornithischia includes a variety of species which were primarily herbivores. The following is a simplified classification of dinosaur groups based on their evolutionary relationships, and organized based on the list of Mesozoic dinosaur species provided by Holtz Knowledge about dinosaurs is derived from a variety of fossil and non-fossil records, including fossilized bones , feces , trackways , gastroliths , feathers , impressions of skin, internal organs and soft tissues.
Current evidence suggests that dinosaur average size varied through the Triassic, early Jurassic, late Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. The sauropods were the largest and heaviest dinosaurs. For much of the dinosaur era, the smallest sauropods were larger than anything else in their habitat, and the largest were an order of magnitude more massive than anything else that has since walked the Earth.
Giant prehistoric mammals such as Paraceratherium the largest land mammal ever were dwarfed by the giant sauropods, and only modern whales approach or surpass them in size. Large animals are more efficient at digestion than small animals, because food spends more time in their digestive systems. This also permits them to subsist on food with lower nutritive value than smaller animals. Sauropod remains are mostly found in rock formations interpreted as dry or seasonally dry, and the ability to eat large quantities of low-nutrient browse would have been advantageous in such environments.
Scientists will probably never be certain of the largest and smallest dinosaurs to have ever existed. This is because only a tiny percentage of animals ever fossilize, and most of these remain buried in the earth. Few of the specimens that are recovered are complete skeletons, and impressions of skin and other soft tissues are rare.
Rebuilding a complete skeleton by comparing the size and morphology of bones to those of similar, better-known species is an inexact art, and reconstructing the muscles and other organs of the living animal is, at best, a process of educated guesswork.
The tallest and heaviest dinosaur known from good skeletons is Giraffatitan brancai previously classified as a species of Brachiosaurus. Its remains were discovered in Tanzania between and The longest complete dinosaur is the 27 meters 89 feet long Diplodocus , which was discovered in Wyoming in the United States and displayed in Pittsburgh's Carnegie Natural History Museum in The Carmen Funes Museum has an Argentinosaurus reconstructed skeleton mount There were larger dinosaurs, but knowledge of them is based entirely on a small number of fragmentary fossils.
The heaviest and longest dinosaur may have been Amphicoelias fragillimus , known only from a now lost partial vertebral neural arch described in The largest carnivorous dinosaur was Spinosaurus , reaching a length of Many modern birds are highly social, often found living in flocks.
There is general agreement that some behaviors that are common in birds, as well as in crocodiles birds' closest living relatives , were also common among extinct dinosaur groups. Interpretations of behavior in fossil species are generally based on the pose of skeletons and their habitat , computer simulations of their biomechanics , and comparisons with modern animals in similar ecological niches.
Those, along with multiple trackways, suggest that gregarious behavior was common in many early dinosaur species. Trackways of hundreds or even thousands of herbivores indicate that duck-bills hadrosaurids may have moved in great herds, like the American bison or the African Springbok.
Sauropod tracks document that these animals traveled in groups composed of several different species, at least in Oxfordshire , England,  although there is no evidence for specific herd structures. There is evidence that many types of slow-growing dinosaurs, including various theropods, sauropods, ankylosaurians, ornithopods, and ceratopsians, formed aggregations of immature individuals.
One example is a site in Inner Mongolia that has yielded the remains of over 20 Sinornithomimus , from one to seven years old. This assemblage is interpreted as a social group that was trapped in mud. The crests and frills of some dinosaurs, like the marginocephalians , theropods and lambeosaurines , may have been too fragile to be used for active defense, and so they were likely used for sexual or aggressive displays, though little is known about dinosaur mating and territorialism. Head wounds from bites suggest that theropods, at least, engaged in active aggressive confrontations.
From a behavioral standpoint, one of the most valuable dinosaur fossils was discovered in the Gobi Desert in It included a Velociraptor attacking a Protoceratops ,  providing evidence that dinosaurs did indeed attack each other.
Comparisons between the scleral rings of dinosaurs and modern birds and reptiles have been used to infer daily activity patterns of dinosaurs. Although it has been suggested that most dinosaurs were active during the day, these comparisons have shown that small predatory dinosaurs such as dromaeosaurids , Juravenator , and Megapnosaurus were likely nocturnal. Large and medium-sized herbivorous and omnivorous dinosaurs such as ceratopsians , sauropodomorphs , hadrosaurids , ornithomimosaurs may have been cathemeral , active during short intervals throughout the day, although the small ornithischian Agilisaurus was inferred to be diurnal.
Based on current fossil evidence from dinosaurs such as Oryctodromeus , some ornithischian species seem to have led a partially fossorial burrowing lifestyle. A good understanding of how dinosaurs moved on the ground is key to models of dinosaur behavior; the science of biomechanics , pioneered by Robert McNeill Alexander , has provided significant insight in this area.
For example, studies of the forces exerted by muscles and gravity on dinosaurs' skeletal structure have investigated how fast dinosaurs could run,  whether diplodocids could create sonic booms via whip -like tail snapping,  and whether sauropods could float. Modern birds are known to communicate using visual and auditory signals, and the wide diversity of visual display structures among fossil dinosaur groups, such as horns, frills, crests, sails and feathers, suggests that visual communication has always been important in dinosaur biology.
Paleontologist Phil Senter suggests that non-avian dinosaurs relied mostly on visual displays and possibly non-vocal acoustic sounds like hissing, jaw grinding or clapping, splashing and wing beating possible in winged maniraptoran dinosaurs.
He states they were unlikely to have been capable of vocalizing since their closest relatives, crocodilians and birds, use different means to vocalize, the former via the larynx and the latter through the unique syrinx , suggesting they evolved independently and their common ancestor was mute.
The earliest remains of a syrinx, which has enough mineral content for fossilization, was found in a specimen of the duck -like Vegavis iaai dated million year ago, and this organ is unlikely to have existed in non-avian dinosaurs. However, in contrast to Senter, the researchers have suggested that dinosaurs could vocalize and that the syrinx-based vocal system of birds evolved from a larynx-based one, rather than the two systems evolving independently.
Such vocalizations evolved independently in extant archosaurs numerous times, following increases in body size. All dinosaurs lay amniotic eggs with hard shells made mostly of calcium carbonate. Most species create somewhat elaborate nests, which can be cups, domes, plates, beds scrapes, mounds, or burrows. Primitive birds and many non-avialan dinosaurs often lay eggs in communal nests, with males primarily incubating the eggs.
While modern birds have only one functional oviduct and lay one egg at a time, more primitive birds and dinosaurs had two oviducts, like crocodiles.
Some non-avialan dinosaurs, such as Troodon , exhibited iterative laying, where the adult might lay a pair of eggs every one or two days, and then ensured simultaneous hatching by delaying brooding until all eggs were laid. When laying eggs, females grow a special type of bone between the hard outer bone and the marrow of their limbs.
This medullary bone, which is rich in calcium , is used to make eggshells. A discovery of features in a Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton provided evidence of medullary bone in extinct dinosaurs and, for the first time, allowed paleontologists to establish the sex of a fossil dinosaur specimen. Further research has found medullary bone in the carnosaur Allosaurus and the ornithopod Tenontosaurus. Because the line of dinosaurs that includes Allosaurus and Tyrannosaurus diverged from the line that led to Tenontosaurus very early in the evolution of dinosaurs, this suggests that the production of medullary tissue is a general characteristic of all dinosaurs.
Another widespread trait among modern birds but see below in regards to fossil groups and extant megapodes is parental care for young after hatching. Jack Horner's discovery of a Maiasaura "good mother lizard" nesting ground in Montana demonstrated that parental care continued long after birth among ornithopods. However, there is ample evidence of supreprecociality among many dinosaur species, particularly theropods.
For instance, non- ornithuromorph birds have been abundantly demonstrated to have had slow growth rates, megapode -like egg burying behaviour and the ability to fly soon after birth. Because both modern crocodilians and birds have four-chambered hearts albeit modified in crocodilians , it is likely that this is a trait shared by all archosaurs, including all dinosaurs. Scientists disagree as to whether non-avian dinosaurs were endothermic, ectothermic, or some combination of both.
After non-avian dinosaurs were discovered, paleontologists first posited that they were ectothermic. This supposed "cold-bloodedness" was used to imply that the ancient dinosaurs were relatively slow, sluggish organisms, even though many modern reptiles are fast and light-footed despite relying on external sources of heat to regulate their body temperature. The idea of dinosaurs as ectothermic and sluggish remained a prevalent view until Robert T.
Modern evidence indicates that even non-avian dinosaurs and birds thrived in cooler temperate climates, and that at least some early species must have regulated their body temperature by internal biological means aided by the animals' bulk in large species and feathers or other body coverings in smaller species. Evidence of endothermy in Mesozoic dinosaurs includes the discovery of polar dinosaurs in Australia and Antarctica as well as analysis of blood-vessel structures within fossil bones that are typical of endotherms.
Scientific debate continues regarding the specific ways in which dinosaur temperature regulation evolved. In saurischian dinosaurs, higher metabolisms were supported by the evolution of the avian respiratory system, characterized by an extensive system of air sacs that extended the lungs and invaded many of the bones in the skeleton, making them hollow.
In addition to providing a very efficient supply of oxygen, the rapid airflow would have been an effective cooling mechanism, which is essential for animals that are active but too large to get rid of all the excess heat through their skin. Like other reptiles , dinosaurs are primarily uricotelic , that is, their kidneys extract nitrogenous wastes from their bloodstream and excrete it as uric acid instead of urea or ammonia via the ureters into the intestine.
In most living species, uric acid is excreted along with feces as a semisolid waste. The possibility that dinosaurs were the ancestors of birds was first suggested in by Thomas Henry Huxley. Feathers are one of the most recognizable characteristics of modern birds, and a trait that was shared by all other dinosaur groups. Based on the current distribution of fossil evidence, it appears that feathers were an ancestral dinosaurian trait, though one that may have been selectively lost in some species.
Simple, branched, feather-like structures are known from heterodontosaurids , primitive neornithischians  and theropods ,  and primitive ceratopsians. Evidence for true, vaned feathers similar to the flight feathers of modern birds has been found only in the theropod subgroup Maniraptora , which includes oviraptorosaurs, troodontids, dromaeosaurids, and birds.
Archaeopteryx was the first fossil found that revealed a potential connection between dinosaurs and birds. It is considered a transitional fossil , in that it displays features of both groups. Brought to light just two years after Darwin's seminal The Origin of Species , its discovery spurred the nascent debate between proponents of evolutionary biology and creationism. This early bird is so dinosaur-like that, without a clear impression of feathers in the surrounding rock, at least one specimen was mistaken for Compsognathus.
Most of these specimens were unearthed in the lagerstätte of the Yixian Formation, Liaoning , northeastern China, which was part of an island continent during the Cretaceous.
Though feathers have been found in only a few locations, it is possible that non-avian dinosaurs elsewhere in the world were also feathered. The lack of widespread fossil evidence for feathered non-avian dinosaurs may be because delicate features like skin and feathers are not often preserved by fossilization and thus are absent from the fossil record.
The description of feathered dinosaurs has not been without controversy; perhaps the most vocal critics have been Alan Feduccia and Theagarten Lingham-Soliar, who have proposed that some purported feather-like fossils are the result of the decomposition of collagenous fiber that underlaid the dinosaurs' skin,    and that maniraptoran dinosaurs with vaned feathers were not actually dinosaurs, but convergent with dinosaurs.
In , it was reported that a dinosaur tail with feathers had been found enclosed in amber. The fossil is about 99 million years old. Because feathers are often associated with birds, feathered dinosaurs are often touted as the missing link between birds and dinosaurs.
However, the multiple skeletal features also shared by the two groups represent another important line of evidence for paleontologists. Areas of the skeleton with important similarities include the neck, pubis , wrist semi-lunate carpal , arm and pectoral girdle , furcula wishbone , and breast bone.
Comparison of bird and dinosaur skeletons through cladistic analysis strengthens the case for the link. Large meat-eating dinosaurs had a complex system of air sacs similar to those found in modern birds, according to a investigation led by Patrick M.
The lungs of theropod dinosaurs carnivores that walked on two legs and had bird-like feet likely pumped air into hollow sacs in their skeletons , as is the case in birds.
CT-scanning of Aerosteon' s fossil bones revealed evidence for the existence of air sacs within the animal's body cavity. Fossils of the troodonts Mei and Sinornithoides demonstrate that some dinosaurs slept with their heads tucked under their arms.
Several deinonychosaur and oviraptorosaur specimens have also been found preserved on top of their nests, likely brooding in a bird-like manner. Some dinosaurs are known to have used gizzard stones like modern birds. These stones are swallowed by animals to aid digestion and break down food and hard fibers once they enter the stomach.
When found in association with fossils, gizzard stones are called gastroliths. The discovery that birds are a type of dinosaur showed that dinosaurs in general are not, in fact, extinct as is commonly stated. It has been suggested that because small mammals, squamata and birds occupied the ecological niches suited for small body size, non-avian dinosaurs never evolved a diverse fauna of small-bodied species, which led to their downfall when large-bodied terrestrial tetrapods were hit by the mass extinction event.
This mass extinction is known as the Cretaceous—Paleogene extinction event. The nature of the event that caused this mass extinction has been extensively studied since the s; at present, several related theories are supported by paleontologists. Though the consensus is that an impact event was the primary cause of dinosaur extinction, some scientists cite other possible causes, or support the idea that a confluence of several factors was responsible for the sudden disappearance of dinosaurs from the fossil record.
Some scientists propose that the meteorite impact caused a long and unnatural drop in Earth's atmospheric temperature, while others claim that it would have instead created an unusual heat wave. The consensus among scientists who support this theory is that the impact caused extinctions both directly by heat from the meteorite impact and also indirectly via a worldwide cooling brought about when matter ejected from the impact crater reflected thermal radiation from the sun.
Although the speed of extinction cannot be deduced from the fossil record alone, various models suggest that the extinction was extremely rapid, being down to hours rather than years. The Deccan Traps in India could have caused extinction through several mechanisms, including the release into the air of dust and sulfuric aerosols, which might have blocked sunlight and thereby reduced photosynthesis in plants.
In addition, Deccan Trap volcanism might have resulted in carbon dioxide emissions, which would have increased the greenhouse effect when the dust and aerosols cleared from the atmosphere. In the years when the Deccan Traps theory was linked to a slower extinction, Luis Alvarez who died in replied that paleontologists were being misled by sparse data.
While his assertion was not initially well-received, later intensive field studies of fossil beds lent weight to his claim. Eventually, most paleontologists began to accept the idea that the mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous were largely or at least partly due to a massive Earth impact. However, even Walter Alvarez has acknowledged that there were other major changes on Earth even before the impact, such as a drop in sea level and massive volcanic eruptions that produced the Indian Deccan Traps , and these may have contributed to the extinctions.
Non-avian dinosaur remains are occasionally found above the Cretaceous—Paleogene boundary. In , paleontologists Zielinski and Budahn reported the discovery of a single hadrosaur leg-bone fossil in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and described it as evidence of Paleocene dinosaurs.
The formation in which the bone was discovered has been dated to the early Paleocene epoch, approximately If the bone was not re-deposited into that stratum by weathering action, it would provide evidence that some dinosaur populations may have survived at least a half million years into the Cenozoic Era.