Digestive System Outline:
There are four primary functions—digestion, absorption, motility, and evacuation—and, correspondingly, four primary modes of dysfunction. Teeth, which are part of the skeletal system, play a key role in digestion. The clinical and laboratory techniques and their applications include the following: The sodium concentrations in similar circumstances vary from 5 millimoles per litre to millimoles per litre. Proctitis Radiation proctitis Proctalgia fugax Rectal prolapse Anismus. Sucrose digestion yields the sugars fructose and glucose which are readily absorbed by the small intestine.
Whatever material is left goes into the large intestine. The function of the large intestine, which is about 5 feet long 1. Also called the colon, it has four parts: This is where water from the chyme is absorbed back into the body and feces are formed primarily from water 75 percent , dietary fiber and other waste products, according to the Cleveland Clinic.
Feces are stored here until they are eliminated from the body through defecation. Many symptoms can signal problems with the GI tract, including: According to the Centers for Disease Control CDC , 51, Americans died from colon cancer in the most recent year for available data. Polyp growth and irregular cells, which may or may not be cancerous, are the most common development paths for colorectal cancers also referred to as CRC , and can be detected during a routine colonoscopy, according to Dr.
For those patients whose cancer has already spread, there are various minimally invasive surgical options that have extremely good prognoses. It is recommended that asymptomatic patients without a family history begin getting tested regularly between the ages 45 and 50, according to Marks. Many of the diseases of the digestive system are tied to the foods we eat, and a number of sufferers can reduce their symptoms by restricting their diets, Good said.
There are a number of tests to detect digestive tract ailments. Other testing procedures include upper GI endoscopy, capsule endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasound. Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine focused on studying and treating the digestive system disorders. Physicians practicing this specialty are called gastroenterologists.
To be certified as a gastroenterologist, a doctor must pass the Gastroenterology Certification Examination and undergo a minimum of 36 months of additional training. References to the digestive system can be traced back to the ancient Egyptians.
Some milestones in the study of the gastrointestinal system include:. Once in the stomach, which is essentially a mixing and holding area, protein digestion begins. The food is churned and drenched in a very strong acid called Hydrochloric Acid. Partly digested food mixed with stomach acid is called chyme. Small Intestine 6 Meters Long: Chemical digestion and the absorption of nutrients into the blood After being further digestied in the stomach, food enters the small intestine.
The first part of the small intestine is called the duodenum, the next part is the jejunum and the third and final part of the small intestine is called the ileum. In the small intestine, bile produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder , pancreatic enzymes, and other digestive enzymes produced by the inner wall of the small intestine further assist with the breakdown of food. After passing through the small intestine, food enters the large intestine. In the large intestine, some of the water and electrolytes chemicals like sodium are removed from the food.
Many microbes bacteria like Bacteroides , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Escherichia coli , and Klebsiella in the large intestine help in the digestion process.