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Fonts Used on this Site. For example, the Swahili nouns -toto "child" and -tu "person" fall into class 1, with singular prefix m- and plural prefix wa-. NET needs to be able to distinguish that text from code. Smell deficit is commonly due to head trauma which often causes the shearing of the olfactory nerve axons at the ethmoidal cribriform plate level. It is a moral person endowed with certain faculties, active like the Sovereign and passive like the State, and capable of being resolved into other similar relations. This is why, so far from growing weak, the laws continually gain new strength in any well constituted State; the precedent of antiquity makes them daily more venerable: Beast Wars Sourcebook Both Magnaboss and Predacus played vital roles in the last battle of the war that led to the signing of the Pax Cybertronia.
Even though some combinations of suffixes are not possible e. Although most agglutinative languages in Europe and Asia are predominantly suffixing, the Bantu languages of southern Africa are known for a highly complex mixture of prefixes, suffixes and reduplication. A typical feature of this language family is that nouns fall into noun classes. To each noun class, there are specific singular and plural prefixes, which also serve as markers of agreement between the subject and the verb.
Moreover, the noun determines prefixes of all words that modify it and subject determines prefixes of other elements in the same verb phrase. For example, the Swahili nouns -toto "child" and -tu "person" fall into class 1, with singular prefix m- and plural prefix wa-. The noun -tabu "book" falls into class 7, with singular prefix ki- and plural prefix vi-. We have already mentioned the fact that most languages include inflectional, agglutinative and isolating constructions side by side.
The American linguist Joseph Harold Greenberg in his paper proposed to use the so-called agglutinative index to calculate a numerical value that would allow a researcher to compare the "degree of agglutitativeness" of various languages. The index of agglutination is equal to the average ratio of the number of agglutinative junctures to the number of morph junctures. Languages with high values of the agglutinative index are agglutinative and with low values of the agglutinative index are fusional.
In the same paper, Greenberg proposed several other indices, many of which turn out to be relevant to the study of agglutination. The synthetic index is the average number of morphemes per word, with the lowest conceivable value equal to 1 for isolating analytic languages and real-life values rarely exceeding 3. The compounding index is equal to the average number of root morphemes per word as opposed to derivational and inflectional morphemes.
The derivational, inflectional, prefixial and suffixial indices correspond respectively to the average number of derivational and inflectional morphemes, prefixes and suffixes. Here is a table of sample values: The one-to-one relationship between an affix and its grammatical function may be somewhat complicated by the phonological processes active in the given language. For example, the following two phonological phenomena appear in many of the Uralic and Turkic languages:. Several examples from Finnish will illustrate how these two rules and other phonological processes lead to diversions from the basic one-to-one relationship between morphs and their syntactic and semantic function.
However, the second example illustrates several kinds of phonological phenomena. It is possible to construct artificially extreme examples of agglutination, which have no real use, but illustrate the theoretical capability of the grammar to agglutinate.
This is not a question of "long words", because some languages permit limitless combinations with compound words, negative clitics or such, which can be and are expressed with an analytic structure in actual usage.
English is capable of agglutinating morphemes of solely Germanic origin, as un-whole-some-ness , but generally speaking the longest words are assembled from forms of Latin or Ancient Greek origin.
The classic example is antidisestablishmentarianism. Agglutinative languages often have more complex derivational agglutination than isolating languages, so they can do the same to a much larger extent. For example, in Hungarian, a word such as elnemzetietleníthetetlenségnek , which means "for [the purposes of] undenationalizationability" can find actual use.
Using inflectional agglutination, these can be extended. It has the derived word epäjärjestelmällistyttämättömyys as the root and is lengthened with the inflectional endings -llänsäkäänköhän. However, this word is grammatically unusual, because -kään "also" is used only in negative clauses, but -kö question only in question clauses. This historical reference is used as a joke for the individuals who are hard to change or those who stick out in a group. Georgian is also a highly agglutinative language.
It was created to ridicule a trend for long compounds in Attic Greek at the time. Slavic languages are not considered agglutinative but fusional. However, extreme derivations similar to ones found in typical agglutinative languages do exist. It is composed of just three roots: It is rather unusual, but finds some usage, e. On the differences of human language construction and its influence on the mental development of mankind] introduced the division of languages into isolating , inflectional , agglutinative and incorporating.
Especially in some older literature, agglutinative is sometimes used as a synonym for synthetic. In that case, it embraces what we call agglutinative and inflectional languages, and it is an antonym of analytic or isolating. Besides the clear etymological motivation after all, inflectional endings are also "glued" to the stems , this more general usage is justified by the fact that the distinction between agglutinative and inflectional languages is not a sharp one, as we have already seen.
In the second half of the 19th century, many linguists believed that there is a natural cycle of language evolution: The following passage from Lord demonstrates well the whole range of meanings that the word agglutination may have. Agglutination takes various forms. In French, welding becomes complete fusion. In English, on the other hand, apart from rare combinations such as good-bye from God be with you , walnut from Wales nut , window from wind-eye O. Words like blackbird and beefeater are a different kettle of fish; they retain their units but their ultimate meaning is not fully deducible from these units.
Saussure preferred to distinguish between compound words and truly synthesised or agglutinated combinations. In natural language processing , languages with rich morphology pose problems of quite a different kind than isolating languages. In the case of agglutinative languages, the main obstacle lies in the large number of word forms that can be obtained from a single root. As we have already seen, the generation of these word forms is somewhat complicated by the phonological processes of the particular language.
Although the basic one-to-one relationship between form and syntactic function is not broken in Finnish, the authoritative institution Kotimaisten kielten tutkimuskeskus KOTUS, i. Even more problems occur with the recognition of word forms. Modern linguistic methods are largely based on the exploitation of corpora; however, when the number of possible word forms is large, any corpus will necessarily contain only a small fraction of them. The data structure of the lexicon has to be optimized so that the search is quick and efficient.
The problem of such an analysis is the large number of morpheme boundaries typical for agglutinative languages. A word of an inflectional language has only one ending and therefore the number of possible divisions of a word into the base and the ending is only linear with the length of the word.
In an agglutinative language, where several suffixes are concatenated at the end of the word, the number of different divisions which have to be checked for consistency is large. This approach was used for example in the development of a system for Arabic, where agglutination occurs when articles, prepositions and conjunctions are joined with the following word and pronouns are joined with the preceding word.
See Grefenstette et al. For instance, the Turkic language family is a well-established language family, as is each of the Uralic, Mongolian and Tungusic families. What is controversial, however, is whether or not these individual families are related as members of an even larger family. The possibility of an Altaic family, comprising Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic, is rather widely accepted, and some scholars would advocate increasing the size of this family by adding some or all of Uralic, Korean and Japanese.
Thus, if we find two languages that happen to share the features: Many earlier attempts at establishing wide-ranging genetic relationships suffer precisely from failure to take this property of typological patterns into account. Thus the fact that Turkic languages, Mongolian languages, Tungusic languages, Korean and Japanese share all of these features is not evidence for their genetic relatedness although there may, of course, be other similarities, not connected with recurrent typological patterns, that do establish genetic relatedness.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Damage to encephalic olfactory structures, however, is also possible. The degree of olfactory function and the influence of age, sex and time since injury are evaluated in patients after trauma. Imaging did not show any lesions of brain olfactory structures in these patients, but Patients complaining of minor head trauma related to olfactory dysfunction had anosmia prevalently due to the shearing of the filia olfactoria. Total, or partial, loss of sense of smell is a common consequence of craniofacial trauma and, in most cases, the deficit is permanent.
The mechanisms involved in this pathology often arise from tearing of olfactory fiber at the level of the cribriform plate caused by an abrupt encephalic movement inside the cranial cavity; contusive, or hemorrhagic, repercussions at the olfactory bulb level and the olfactive cerebral areas, and, more rarely, or nasal obstruction caused by trauma which may be incomplete and solved surgically.
In these cases partial repair likely occurs between the connection of the olfactory mucous and bulbs, or at the level of the central olfactory pathways. In some cases patients report recovery characterized by dysosmia, an altered qualitative perception of odors which may depend on an incomplete, or abnormal, central, or peripheral, repair process. In this study we have evaluated epidemiologic data in patients affected by olfactory deficits following minor craniofacial traumas.
All patients underwent anamnesis; and an otorhinolaryngologic examination, which included a nasal endoscopy; and an evaluation of cranial, maxillofacial TC and magnetic resonance imaging MRI and of clinical neurological data with reference to the previous traumatic event. The test was comprised of 3 subtests which evaluated the olfactory threshold, discrimination and identification. Data were elaborated with SPSS statistical software through an analysis of the frequency distributions of the olfactory performance test responses, and by evaluating the possible associations of the variables, in order to understand which of these mainly influence the occurrence of the phenomenon.
Post-trauma TC and MRI evaluation did not show any facial or encephalic lesions, including the olfactory cleft. During anamnesis, none of the patients reported a post-traumatic nasal obstruction, nor did we observe nasal passage obstruction due to post-traumatic damage of mucosa, or of osteocartilaginous structures of the nose, by presence of nasal polyps, or rhinosinusitis mucopurulent secretion.
Score analysis of the 3 subtests showed a mean value of 0. Discrimination mean values were 3. Identification value was 4. Absolute, and percentage, frequencies of patients based on gender and degree of olfactory deficit. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on age: Absolute, and percentage, frequencies of patients for the olfactory threshold subtest. Absolute, and percentage, frequencies of patients for the olfactory discrimination subtest. Age and gender patient distribution.