Digitalization increases flexibility
The emitted light was detected by a PbS diode some distance away. This signal was fed into an audio amplifier and played back by a loudspeaker. Intercepting the beam stopped the music. We had a great deal of fun playing with this setup. After establishing the priority of their work based on engineering notebooks predating submissions from G. George Craford ,  a former graduate student of Holonyak, invented the first yellow LED and improved the brightness of red and red-orange LEDs by a factor of ten in Pearsall created the first high-brightness, high-efficiency LEDs for optical fiber telecommunications by inventing new semiconductor materials specifically adapted to optical fiber transmission wavelengths.
The first commercial LEDs were commonly used as replacements for incandescent and neon indicator lamps, and in seven-segment displays ,  first in expensive equipment such as laboratory and electronics test equipment, then later in such appliances as TVs, radios, telephones, calculators, as well as watches see list of signal uses.
These red LEDs were bright enough only for use as indicators, as the light output was not enough to illuminate an area. Readouts in calculators were so small that plastic lenses were built over each digit to make them legible. Later, other colors became widely available and appeared in appliances and equipment. In the s commercially successful LED devices at less than five cents each were produced by Fairchild Optoelectronics.
These devices employed compound semiconductor chips fabricated with the planar process invented by Dr. Jean Hoerni at Fairchild Semiconductor. Nakamura, Akasaki, and Amano were awarded the Nobel prize in physics for their work. In  and ,  processes for growing gallium nitride GaN LEDs on silicon were successfully demonstrated. As of , some manufacturers are using SiC as the substrate for LED production, but sapphire is more common, as it has the most simillar properties to that of gallium nitride, reducing the need for patterning the sapphire wafer.
Patterned wafers are known as epi wafers. Toshiba has stopped research, possibly due to low yields. Epitaxy or patterned sapphire can be carried out with Nanoimprint lithography. In this device a Y 3 Al 5 O Ce known as " YAG " cerium doped phosphor coating on the emitter absorbs some of the blue emission and produces yellow light through fluorescence.
The combination of that yellow with remaining blue light appears white to the eye. However, using different phosphors fluorescent materials it also became possible to instead produce green and red light through fluorescence.
The resulting mixture of red, green and blue is not only perceived by humans as white light but is superior for illumination in terms of color rendering , whereas one cannot appreciate the color of red or green objects illuminated only by the yellow and remaining blue wavelengths from the YAG phosphor. The first white LEDs were expensive and inefficient. However, the light output of LEDs has increased exponentially , with a doubling occurring approximately every 36 months since the s similar to Moore's law.
The latest research and development has been propagated by Japanese manufacturers such as Panasonic , Nichia , etc. Samsung , Solstice , Kingsun, and countless others. Light output and efficiency of blue and near-ultraviolet LEDs rose as the cost of reliable devices fell. This led to relatively high-power white-light LEDs for illumination, which are replacing incandescent and fluorescent lighting. It can be encapsulated using resin, silicone, or epoxy containing powdered Cerium doped YAG phosphor.
Encapsulation is performed after probing, dicing, die transfer from wafer to package, and wire bonding or flip chip mounting, perhaps using Indium tin oxide , a transparent electrical conductor.
Remote phosphor LED light bulbs may have behind the plastic cover a white plastic reflector. Others shape the remote phosphor as a dome, or sphere, and place it atop a single PCB containing blue LEDs; this assembly may be behind a frosted glass or plastic cover. The PCB is often installed atop a pillar, which is lined with white plastic. A P-N junction can convert absorbed light energy into a proportional electric current. The same process is reversed here i. This phenomenon is generally called electroluminescence , which can be defined as the emission of light from a semiconductor under the influence of an electric field.
The charge carriers recombine in a forward-biased P-N junction as the electrons cross from the N-region and recombine with the holes existing in the P-region. Free electrons are in the conduction band of energy levels, while holes are in the valence energy band. Thus the energy level of the holes is less than the energy levels of the electrons.
Some portion of the energy must be dissipated to recombine the electrons and the holes. This energy is emitted in the form of heat and light. The electrons dissipate energy in the form of heat for silicon and germanium diodes but in gallium arsenide phosphide GaAsP and gallium phosphide GaP semiconductors, the electrons dissipate energy by emitting photons.
If the semiconductor is translucent, the junction becomes the source of light as it is emitted, thus becoming a light-emitting diode. However, when the junction is reverse biased, the LED produces no light and—if the potential is great enough, the device is damaged. The LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction. As in other diodes, current flows easily from the p-side, or anode , to the n-side, or cathode, but not in the reverse direction.
Charge-carriers— electrons and holes —flow into the junction from electrodes with different voltages. When an electron meets a hole, it falls into a lower energy level and releases energy in the form of a photon.
The wavelength of the light emitted, and thus its color, depends on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction. In silicon or germanium diodes, the electrons and holes usually recombine by a non-radiative transition , which produces no optical emission, because these are indirect band gap materials.
The materials used for the LED have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared, visible, or near-ultraviolet light. LED development began with infrared and red devices made with gallium arsenide.
Advances in materials science have enabled making devices with ever-shorter wavelengths, emitting light in a variety of colors. LEDs are usually built on an n-type substrate, with an electrode attached to the p-type layer deposited on its surface.
P-type substrates, while less common, occur as well. Bare uncoated semiconductors such as silicon exhibit a very high refractive index relative to open air, which prevents passage of photons arriving at sharp angles relative to the air-contacting surface of the semiconductor due to total internal reflection. This property affects both the light-emission efficiency of LEDs as well as the light-absorption efficiency of photovoltaic cells.
The refractive index of silicon is set at 3. In general, a flat-surface uncoated LED semiconductor chip emits light only perpendicular to the semiconductor's surface, and a few degrees to the side, in a cone shape referred to as the light cone , cone of light ,  or the escape cone. When the critical angle is exceeded, photons no longer escape the semiconductor but are, instead, reflected internally inside the semiconductor crystal as if it were a mirror.
Internal reflections can escape through other crystalline faces if the incidence angle is low enough and the crystal is sufficiently transparent to not re-absorb the photon emission. But for a simple square LED with degree angled surfaces on all sides, the faces all act as equal angle mirrors.
In this case, most of the light can not escape and is lost as waste heat in the crystal. A convoluted chip surface with angled facets similar to a jewel or fresnel lens can increase light output by distributing light perpendicular to the chip surface and far to the sides of the photon emission point. The ideal shape of a semiconductor with maximum light output would be a microsphere with the photon emission occurring at the exact center, with electrodes penetrating to the center to contact at the emission point.
All light rays emanating from the center would be perpendicular to the entire surface of the sphere, resulting in no internal reflections. A hemispherical semiconductor would also work, with the flat back-surface serving as a mirror to back-scattered photons. After the doping of the wafer , it is usually cut apart into individual dies. Each die is commonly called a chip. Many LED semiconductor chips are encapsulated or potted in clear or colored molded plastic shells.
The plastic shell has three purposes:. The third feature helps to boost the light emission from the semiconductor by acting as a diffusing lens, emitting light at a much higher angle of incidence from the light cone than the bare chip would alone. Typical indicator LEDs are designed to operate with no more than 30—60 milliwatts mW of electrical power. These LEDs used much larger semiconductor die sizes to handle the large power inputs.
Also, the semiconductor dies were mounted onto metal slugs to allow for greater heat dissipation from the LED die. One of the key advantages of LED-based lighting sources is high luminous efficacy. White LEDs quickly matched and overtook the efficacy of standard incandescent lighting systems. As of [update] , Philips had achieved the following efficacies for each color. The lumen-per-watt efficacy value includes characteristics of the human eye and is derived using the luminosity function.
These efficiencies are for the light-emitting diode only, held at low temperature in a lab. Since LEDs installed in real fixtures operate at higher temperature and with driver losses, real-world efficiencies are much lower.
Efficiency droop is the decrease in luminous efficiency of LEDs as the electric current increases above tens of milliamperes. This effect was initially thought related to elevated temperatures. Scientists proved the opposite is true: In addition to being less efficient, operating LEDs at higher electric currents creates higher heat levels, which can compromise LED lifetime. Instead of increasing current levels, luminance is usually increased by combining multiple LEDs in one bulb.
Solving the problem of efficiency droop would mean that household LED light bulbs would need fewer LEDs, which would significantly reduce costs. Researchers at the U. Naval Research Laboratory have found a way to lessen the efficiency droop. They found that the droop arises from non-radiative Auger recombination of the injected carriers. They created quantum wells with a soft confinement potential to lessen the non-radiative Auger processes. Researchers at Taiwan National Central University and Epistar Corp are developing a way to lessen the efficiency droop by using ceramic aluminium nitride AlN substrates, which are more thermally conductive than the commercially used sapphire.
The higher thermal conductivity reduces self-heating effects. Solid-state devices such as LEDs are subject to very limited wear and tear if operated at low currents and at low temperatures. Typical lifetimes quoted are 25, to , hours, but heat and current settings can extend or shorten this time significantly. The most common symptom of LED and diode laser failure is the gradual lowering of light output and loss of efficiency. Sudden failures, although rare, can also occur. Early red LEDs were notable for their short service life.
With the development of high-power LEDs, the devices are subjected to higher junction temperatures and higher current densities than traditional devices. This causes stress on the material and may cause early light-output degradation. Whereas in most previous sources of light incandescent lamps, discharge lamps, and those that burn combustible fuel, e. At these temperatures, relatively little heat is lost by radiation, which means that the light beam generated by an LED is cool.
The waste heat in a high-power LED which as of can be less than half the power that it consumes is conveyed by conduction through the substrate and package of the LED to a heat sink , which gives up the heat to the ambient air by convection.
Medium-power LEDs are often designed to solder directly to a printed circuit board that contains a thermally conductive metal layer. High-power LEDs are packaged in large-area ceramic packages that attach to a metal heat sink —the interface being a material with high thermal conductivity thermal grease , phase-change material , thermally conductive pad , or thermal adhesive.
If an LED-based lamp is installed in an unventilated luminaire , or a luminaire is located in an environment that does not have free air circulation, the LED is likely to overheat, resulting in reduced life or early catastrophic failure. LEDs used in outdoor applications, such as traffic signals or in-pavement signal lights, and in climates where the temperature within the light fixture becomes very high, could experience reduced output or even failure.
However, they may be more susceptible to frost and snow buildup than incandescent lamps,  so some LED lighting systems have been designed with an added heating circuit. Additionally, research has developed heat sink technologies that transfer heat produced within the junction to appropriate areas of the light fixture. Conventional LEDs are made from a variety of inorganic semiconductor materials.
The following table shows the available colors with wavelength range, voltage drop, and material:. The first blue-violet LED using magnesium-doped gallium nitride was made at Stanford University in by Herb Maruska and Wally Rhines, doctoral students in materials science and engineering.
In , the year after Maruska left for Stanford, his RCA colleagues Pankove and Ed Miller demonstrated the first blue electroluminescence from zinc-doped gallium nitride, though the subsequent device Pankove and Miller built, the first actual gallium nitride light-emitting diode, emitted green light. Patent US A and today, magnesium-doping of gallium nitride remains the basis for all commercial blue LEDs and laser diodes. In the early s, these devices were too dim for practical use, and research into gallium nitride devices slowed.
In August , Cree introduced the first commercially available blue LED based on the indirect bandgap semiconductor, silicon carbide SiC. In the late s, key breakthroughs in GaN epitaxial growth and p-type doping  ushered in the modern era of GaN-based optoelectronic devices. Building upon this foundation, Theodore Moustakas at Boston University patented a method for producing high-brightness blue LEDs using a new two-step process.
Nakamura was awarded the Millennium Technology Prize for his invention. By the late s, blue LEDs became widely available. They have an active region consisting of one or more InGaN quantum wells sandwiched between thicker layers of GaN, called cladding layers. Ultraviolet LEDs in a range of wavelengths are becoming available on the market. Unlike dedicated-color LEDs, however, these obviously do not produce pure wavelengths. Moreover, such modules as commercially available are often not optimized for smooth color mixing.
One is to use individual LEDs that emit three primary colors  —red, green, and blue—and then mix all the colors to form white light. The other is to use a phosphor material to convert monochromatic light from a blue or UV LED to broad-spectrum white light, much in the same way a fluorescent light bulb works.
The 'whiteness' of the light produced is essentially engineered to suit the human eye. The yellow phosphor in LEDs is Cerium doped YAG crystal, in powder form and may be suspended in plastic, epoxy, synthetic rubber or silicone.
Touching bare LEDs using synthetic rubber or silicone can damage the delicate wire bonds from LED to package or the LED itself, so they may be protected by a plastic or glass cover, such as in the LED flash in smartphones. Because of metamerism , it is possible to have quite different spectra that appear white. However, the appearance of objects illuminated by that light may vary as the spectrum varies, this is the issue of color rendition, quite separate from color temperature, where a really orange or cyan object could appear with the wrong color and much darker as the LED or phosphor does not emit the wavelength it reflects.
The best color rendition CFL and LEDs use a mix of phosphors, resulting in less efficiency but better quality of light. Though incandescent halogen lamps have a more orange color temperature, they are still the best easily available artificial light sources in terms of color rendition.
White light can be formed by mixing differently colored lights; the most common method is to use red, green, and blue RGB. Because these need electronic circuits to control the blending and diffusion of different colors, and because the individual color LEDs typically have slightly different emission patterns leading to variation of the color depending on direction even if they are made as a single unit, these are seldom used to produce white lighting.
Nonetheless, this method has many applications because of the flexibility of mixing different colors,  and in principle, this mechanism also has higher quantum efficiency in producing white light.
There are several types of multicolor white LEDs: Several key factors that play among these different methods include color stability, color rendering capability, and luminous efficacy. Often, higher efficiency means lower color rendering, presenting a trade-off between the luminous efficacy and color rendering. However, although tetrachromatic white LEDs have excellent color rendering capability, they often have poor luminous efficacy.
One of the challenges is the development of more efficient green LEDs. The theoretical maximum for green LEDs is lumens per watt but as of few green LEDs exceed even lumens per watt. The blue and red LEDs approach their theoretical limits. Multicolor LEDs offer not merely another means to form white light but a new means to form light of different colors. Most perceivable colors can be formed by mixing different amounts of three primary colors.
This allows precise dynamic color control. As more effort is devoted to investigating this method, multicolor LEDs should have profound influence on the fundamental method that we use to produce and control light color. However, before this type of LED can play a role on the market, several technical problems must be solved.
These include that this type of LED's emission power decays exponentially with rising temperature,  resulting in a substantial change in color stability. Such problems inhibit and may preclude industrial use. Thus, many new package designs aimed at solving this problem have been proposed and their results are now being reproduced by researchers and scientists.
However multicolor LEDs without phosphors can never provide good quality lighting because each LED is a narrow band source see graph.
LEDs without phosphor while a poorer solution for general lighting are the best solution for displays, either backlight of LCD, or direct LED based pixels.
VoIP is linked with less operation and maintenance costs and also leaves no worries about potential network issues over bandwidth. You have to put your complete trust in them, including the methods they use to get things done.
Tapping outside help eliminates this headache for small-scaled businesses. Small companies do not have to worry about managing in-house administrative duties nor are they involved in the phone or hosted pabx system once glitches and potential troubles arise.
The responsibilities and hands-on administration is put on the hands of the chosen hosted PBAX provider — making it important to sift through plenty of options in order to choose the best one for your company. Potential customers must do their fair share of research, too. Each company is different and that means they have varying needs to a degree. Ideally, you would want to find a VoIP provider that supports mobile initiatives.
The desktop phone system must be able to work well with smartphones and other mobile devices in forwarding calls. This will save the company both time and operation costs. If this does not apply, try asking your provider for in-depth applications which will allow users to access full desktop client on their own devices.
Last but not the least, companies must seek providers which can offer them a personalized customer service. Your VoIP must be able to provide fast responses whenever there are inquiries, and at the same time report to the company the progress of the hosted PBAX system.
There are times when companies want to have queues that are dealt in different ways or they may also want to adapt diverse forwarding rules, either way, the hosted PBAX provider must be able to cater to these necessary requests. There are many considerations and factors to take into account in adapting a hosted PBAX for a certain company. Organizations must weigh out pros and cons deliberately to figure out if the option would benefit the business more, hence is why the opinion of a professional is encouraged.
There are many IT and tech professionals in Singapore who are experienced in matters regarding VoIP Singapore, and if you want the best for your company then you might as well seek their advice. But what exactly is it? Simply put, mobile catering is essentially a fancier term for operating out of a concession stand on wheels. Food carts are motor-less trailers that can be hauled by most vehicles, such as motorcycles and automobiles, often at a sidewalk or a park.
Depending on what you want to serve, you can also opt for an actual food truck for your mobile coffee cart and serve more than just mocha and latte. The best part about serving in a mobile cart is that you can serve anything basically anywhere.
A coffee cart, for example, can serve mocha, latte, or cappuccino in different places depending on the foot traffic. This mobile coffee cart can be a godsend to workers who need that much-needed cup of energy for the day.
But Why A Cart? Why not just rent your own space and sell coffee from there? Having a coffee cart in Singapore that can go from place to place depending on the foot traffic or events, if any allows you to set up anywhere you want and follow the traffic to reach the most customers. A cart also allows you to be versatile. You can choose to either be constantly on the move or rent a space and set up an al fresco café of your own — the possibilities are as many as your imagination allows you.
Product of Choice What else could be so versatile a beverage as coffee? Not only is it great for the working man and woman on their way to work, but also as a way to unwind after a long day. Coffee also works with pretty much any snack — feel free to cook something up on your own and see what works! You can also partner up with different businesses that sell different kinds of foodstuffs, such as baked goods i.
Business Plan Before deciding to push out your coffee push cart on the nearest sidewalk or renting out the nearest space to convert into your own al fresco café, you of course need to develop a concrete business plan with all the specifics included to make sure that you have all the equipment and appliances that you need.
Market research here is crucial. Though a lot of factors may be favorable for a mobile catering operator, you still need to look at current market trends and see how it affects businesses, and how it could potentially affect your mobile business. Mobile catering businesses can be classified as restaurants on the go, equipped with the appliances and gadgets needed to cook and prepare the products to sell food. Customer Base and Location Coffee catering has never been made easier with just one word: This is perhaps the key determining factor in any mobile catering business, especially with a mobile coffee cart.
You get to broaden your horizons and reach out to different customer bases as long as you operate within legal boundaries.
Here are a few examples of places where you can reach out to customers from your mobile coffee cart: Types of Mobile Carts Which type of coffee catering vehicle is the best way for you to sell your signature home brew to your customers? There are three kinds of vehicles that you can use: Trailers work the same way as carts, but are much larger in size and allow you to serve a larger crowd. Trucks, meanwhile, are a good option if you specialize in cooking something to go along with your coffee.
Trucks offer the most space and flexibility, but depending on local health codes, you may be required to prepare and store your food at a commissary. Waterproofing has never been a fun or enjoyable matter when it comes to estate maintenance. However, despite its unpopularity, every condo manager emphasizes that buildings need sufficient waterproofing.
Because water penetration can cause serious property damage, which will then negatively affect the selling value of the property. Doing so, you, as well as your tenants, will enjoy the many benefits of having your walls professionally waterproofed, such as:.
Reduced energy cost By asking your condo manager to waterproof your building, you will be able to seal cracks in walls and prevent external heat from entering your premises, thus, saving you on energy costs from your air conditioning system. Similarly, by sealing up wall cracks, you can prevent cool air from entering your place especially during wet seasons, thus eliminating excessive usage of the heating system.
Avoid health problems We all know that buildup of moisture can cause harmful molds to grow in our premises. These microorganisms can cause illnesses, trigger allergies, and asthma attacks. Hence it is important to get one of the best property management companies in Singapore to check it out regularly. Although rare, this type of moss is extremely hazardous to the health. Some health effects of black molds are, among others, skin irritation, respiratory problems, watery eyes, sore throat, sinus congestion, shortness of breath, and chronic fatigue.
Protect your investment Recall the days when you built or bought your condominium. Remember how much hard work you put into the making of the estate property? How about the million dollar worth of furniture and appliances in the entire building?
Are you sure you want to risk this major investment of your life? Increase property value Nobody wants a leaked wall, especially those Singapore residents thinking about renting a unit. Susceptibility to moisture in your units is a huge turn off for prospect tenants. Moreover, dry and usable spaces allow tenants to maximize the very limited area, thus boosting the functionality and value of your units. Investing in proper waterproofing can prevent your business from accruing great damage and large renovation bills.
Protect your investment and everybody in your building through waterproofing. Ask your managing agent about this property management service and let them help you in looking for a reliable provider.
What used to be a swamp that served as a post for traders during the colonial period and a pirate base in the s, is now a premier destination for local and foreign visitors that want to unwind and have a good time.
Holiday resort investment is a big thing in Vietnam nowadays, especially with the rapid development of various sites to attract potential commercial, industrial, entertainment and recreation, and property investment. There are also various opportunities in the region to invest in condo, own a beach villa for sale, and to try your hand at holiday resort investment.
Its pristine beaches are a prime destination for those who want to get away from the hectic life in the cities or to enjoy world-class entertainment and recreation at one of its prestigious hotels, casinos, resorts, beach villa for sale, and even your own Vung Tau condo.
Ho Tram is considered a premier destination because of its proximity to sister beaches, the hot springs and mud baths, nature reserve and virgin rainforest, and a sanctuary for native fauna. Another contributing factor to its growing popularity among travelers from outside Vietnam is its ideal beach conditions that rivals that of other premier getaway destinations in Las Vegas, Macau, and Phuket. It features not just world-class beaches, but also luxury hotels that are among the finest in Vietnam, a grand casino, villa beside golf course Bluffs Golf Course , beach villa for sale, the Kahuna Ho Tram Strip one of the five-star integrated beaches , and many more.
The Kahuna ho tram in Vietnam includes entertainment, recreation, and relaxation amenities that is among the finest in the Southeast Asian region, such as, a central park, game center, dragon slide and pool, cinema, miniature golf, fitness center, spas, jukebox karaoke center, and premium outlets for a total package.
Kahuna Ho Tram is a combination of two words; Ho Tram, the name of the beach town, and kahuna, which is taken from the Hawaiian name for a large wave. Quite appropriate, too, because itt surely has been making waves in terms of the quality and of its property investment opportunities. Invest in condo and the Kahuna Ho Tram and get a spectacular sea-facing view, your own Jacuzzi or swimming pool, and ponds and water-lined walkways.
It has a casino, fine-dining restaurants, mini-golf course, spas, waterslide, ballroom, convention facilities, and the world-renowned Bluffs Golf Course.
As far as do-it-yourself jobs go, plumbing works rank as one of the top tasks homeowners in Singapore prefer to handle on their own. These may all be valid reasons, but when thinking of the possibility of worsening the plumbing scenario, hiring a professional is unarguably a much cheaper option than overhauling underground water pipes. You may be successful in replacing a shower head or sink faucet, but plumbing needs skills and training to be successfully done.
Unless you find pleasure in crawling under sinks and doing all the dirty works to repeatedly unclog the drains, you will appreciate the long-term solution that a reliable plumber can provide to your plumbing system. Hiring a professional plumber gives you access to a wide range of plumbing services for installation, maintenance and repair works. Installation of new pipes, replacement of old parts, spotting blockages, repairing leaks—they can professionally handle all those works in a faster and more efficient way.
Your plumbing contractor can save you from emergency plumbing problems. Emergencies with your plumbing system can cause delay to your daily activities, as well as cause extensive water damage.
A professional plumber can provide emergency plumbing services and can come to your rescue quickly. A recommended plumber at Singapore will provide you with detailed diagnostic report. What appears to you as just a leaking pipe could be a blockage problem. Well-trained plumbers can carefully check your entire plumbing system to find all existing and potential problems. Leaky toilets, faucets and other plumbing fixtures waste a lot of water, which would cost you more on your water bill.
Hiring a professional plumber will guarantee savings in your water bill when leaks are repaired right away. Moreover, your hired professionals will be the ones to purchase the necessary fixtures, which will likely be cost-effective for you. Accidents caused by broken pipes could cause damages to your property. Plus, if you hire a licensed and insured plumber in Singapore, you can be sure that any property damage incurred during the repair is covered by the plumbing company.
Recognized plumbing companies are equipped with the newest technology and equipment to solve plumbing problems in an efficient and timely manner. Aside from the latest equipment, staffs undergo regular training to update their knowledge and skills in dealing with different issues. Having your system regularly checked by a professional plumber will keep your plumbing system running and help detect problems in their early stage before they can wreak havoc to your day-to-day routine and to your properties.
This helps avoid interruptions and ensures that your everyday activities run smoothly. If you suspect any leaking, cracks or blockages, have it checked by a professional. Your hired plumber can check your water lines to detect and fix any issues right away. With their certified skills and the right tools, you can be sure that your drinking water is clean and free from contaminants. A reliable plumber is able to provide excellent customer service and responsive plumbing team whenever needed.
If you have had a repair or maintenance done by a professional plumbing services company, you can have access to expert advices if you come across another plumbing issue or emergency. Your professionals will be there for you, helping and guiding you in maintaining your plumbing system. The head of the team has extensive knowledge, training and experience.
From installation of parts to repairing pipes and other problems, a professional plumber has the right skills to ensure that the issue is fixed on the first try with permanent results.
Unfortunately, DIY plumbing works usually cost more not only due to possible mistakes while doing the repair, but also because DIY works do not provide permanent solution. If you hire a licensed professional in the first place, you will minimize additional expenses and errors as they have the right tools and knowledge for the job. Who can say no to fresh seafood? Besides improving your list of sumptuous seafood recipes, you can also focus on improving your kitchen area by getting the best commercial kitchen equipment.
They say that the kitchen is the heart of all restaurants, and why not? The kitchen is where your staff prepare the food for cooking and for service. Trust us when we say that the quality of the food, the speed of service, and the well-being of your kitchen staff will improve with a kitchen that has been designed smartly.
Through a collaboration of a kitchen designer and the best kitchen equipment supplier in Singapore, you will be able to turn your seafood restaurant kitchen into a clean, efficient, and functional space. Besides the cooking area, the layout of the kitchen must include the storage areas such as shelving and cabinets , preparation area, dishwashing area, receiving area, and garbage disposal area. Commercial kitchen equipment other than those used for cooking should be placed where they can be most accessible to the staff to increase efficiency, create a smoother traffic flow, improve the division of labor, and make sure that the area will be easier to clean.
Storage areas should also be within the same area but must not get in the way of the cooking, receiving, and preparation. For a list of commercial kitchen equipment, you should consult your menu and plan which items are needed with your kitchen equipment supplier in Singapore.
The size and number of the appliances will also depend on the menu and the number of customers will be expecting. Lastly, you should decide the best way to distribute or place the lighting, ventilation, sprinkler system, wall and floor coverings, and the sinks. To make the listing of commercial kitchen equipment easier, divide the items according to their functions, such as storage, preparation, cooking, accessories, and service. This refers to items used for the storage of materials.
They should be easy to clean and durable and placed in areas where they are accessible. Storage items for a seafood restaurant will include the following:. These are items used for the chopping, slicing, cubing, dicing, mincing, pulping, pressing, processing, and mixing of the ingredients.
Preparation tools for a seafood restaurant kitchen might include the following:. Commercial kitchen equipment that use different types of fuel are included in this category. Cooking tools for a seafood restaurant might include the following:. These are items that will assist your staff in the preparation and cooking of food.
Kitchen accessories for a seafood restaurant might include the following:. These are items that will help keep your food hot or fresh for the customers. Service equipment for a seafood restaurant might include the following:. Remember that you might not need all the items on this list, so use your menu as a basis. Besides these commercial kitchen equipment, you will also need a list of the number of tables, chairs, table covers, dinnerware, and linens you will need for the dining area.
Be it a sunny or just an ordinary day, indulging on savoury barbecues has become the favourite past times of most Singaporeans. Because of this barbecue hype, a bbq catering business became one of the ideal business ventures in Singapore. So if you fancy eating and making tasty barbecue recipes, and is planning to get into the catering services industry, then list down these tips on how you can start your bbq catering business.
One important thing you need to do before putting up your own bbq catering business is to obtain all the legal requirements needed to set up a business in Singapore.
Also, ensure that your business will be able to comply with all the requirements so that you can already start your business as early as possible. Do check for certain regulations and policies implemented by the health and taxation departments to ensure that your business is official and legal.
Although its importance is easily overlooked, make sure to get an insurance for your catering business. You should obtain proper business license as well as the commercial liability insurance to cover for your clients, guests, or anyone who were affected by your catering services in a negative way.
In creating a barbecue menu, ensure that it contains barbecue meals that are unique, interesting, and of course, tasty so that your bbq catering at Singapore business will stand out from other competing bbq caterers in Singapore. You can just start with two or three recipes, and focus on getting these recipes known in the market first. After coming up with a menu, the next thing that you should do is decide on what your catering prices will be.
Caterers are one of the services that are usually hired by wedding coordinators and event planners. Establish connections with these people as they can serve as an outside salesperson to get your business known. Social networking platforms like Facebook, Twitter and even Instagram could serve as a good promotional tool for your bbq catering business. You can create a Facebook page for your business and post all the important details that you want your potential clients to know about your business.
It would also help if you post some photos of the event that you catered and how well it went. That way, you can grab the attention and interest of some barbecue lovers out there. In freight forwarding services, a freight forwarder, also known as a forwarding agent or a non-vessel operating common carrier NVOCC , is the one that organizes the shipments either for individuals or companies in Singapore in order to deliver goods from a manufacturer to the final point of distribution, or vice versa.
NVOCCs and international freight forwarders will often charge a certain fee for transferring documents to different transportation companies once the goods reach a particular destination, which may or may not be included in their sea freight or air freight charges and is usually paid by the importer at the point of discharge. They also act on the behalf of importers and companies when it comes to ensuring the safest, most efficient way possible, making use of established relationships with multiple carriers to negotiate the best price for shipping via various bids.
While local freight forwarders typically handle local shipping, international freight companies are in the business of shipping goods across the world. Here are a few reasons why you should consider freight forwarding services in Singapore for shipping your products:.
There are simply too many things to take into account when the transportation of goods is involved, but they also have to be coordinated in order to reach their point of destination in time.
This is especially true if your cargo is delicate or deteriorates easily, such as livestock or even food. Freight forwarding services essentially work in the same way as a logistics company. Not only do they have to coordinate with the shipping company that handles the cargo, but they also have to track it in real time as well as negotiate with customs in different countries if need be.
Here are some of the other things that the logistics services of freight forwarder in Singapore are responsible for:. The process of freight forwarding to ship cargo is extensive, and having to do it yourself will take too much time as well as effort in keeping in touch with as well as establishing connections with the shipping company that they chose to handle the cargo.
Having a logistics company coordinate with a shipping company will also save you a lot of money. There are various fees that a logistics company specializing in freight forwarding may charge various fees, not just in the mere transportation of your cargo but also in negotiating with and meeting customs requirements in many different countries, depending on where the final point of delivery will be.
However, when choosing a service, do consider that there could be risks along with the advantages. Delayed shipments could mean a lot of things for your business, and not having the needed materials on time could easily cost you more than what you intended.
With this kind of service, you could easily save money on transporting your goods. Not only do they simplify the work, but they also make sure that there are alternative ways to make sure they reach the destination on time and in their peak condition. One of the biggest reasons why Singapore is recognized globally as a logistics hubs is primarily because of its world-class infrastructure that makes it really easy to facilitate the transfer and delivery of shipments from not just Southeast Asia, but all over the world.
Being an island, it has numerous ports with many established shipping services and many more that aim to establish themselves. This array of choices, coupled with the convenience, makes the Lion City an ideal location for you to move your products throughout most of Southeast Asia and even all over the world via air freight or sea freight with relative ease.
Hotel banquets will never go out of style. But how do you really pull off a spectacular wedding banquet? Some venues have in-house food and drinks and may not allow a third-party caterer.
If your hotel venue is lenient on food catering, take advantage of it as it can help you save on your expenses and also lessen the hassle of finding a vendor. Knowing how much you can spend will help you pick out the right banquet package when viewing from a wedding banquet price list, as well as help you decide on the dishes and drinks to splurge or pinch on.
You can cut down on your expenses and serve just two kinds of desserts; perhaps some pastries and fresh fruits. If you can, spend a little more on your entrees.
Serve at least two to three types of varied dishes to accommodate any guests with a specific diet like no meat. Overall you want to offer your guests a feast that can satisfy their appetites at the end of your wedding without going over your budget. This information goes with your budget.
When you know how many guests will attend your wedding, you will have better idea of what package to get from the wedding banquet price list. It is important to finalize your guest list sooner so that you can work with a fixed budget once you interview a caterer.
Once you have the number figured out, try to offer a menu that is generally palatable to your guests. Steer away from dishes that may be too unfamiliar no one would dare touch. Aside from the number of guests, try to consider also what the overall preference may be. If you want to be cohesive with your theme from the favors to the décors and even with the attire, then incorporate your theme in your menu. Offer your guests with a complete experience of your theme that they can enjoy not just in sight and sound but also in taste.
Research the kinds of dishes and drinks that are inspired by your theme to help you identify specifically what kind of entrees or desserts you must have. For example, if you have an Oriental theme, find out what are served in a traditional Oriental banquet and give it a little twist to make it modern or at least recognizable to your guests.
These are the basic things you need to know about before picking a package or a hotel banquet from any wedding banquet price list. With enough information on the above, you can ask the essential things from your prospect hotel such as; if you can have a food and drinks sampling to try the dishes you want in the menu. If not, you might have to add tax and tip. How about the idea of bringing them to a professional pet salon in Singapore? Even the most short-haired cats can benefit from proper pet grooming.
For cats with medium to long hair, every day brushing of hair is required. Brushing also removes strands of dead hair and reduces the likelihood of matting and hairballs. The undercoat sits closest to the skin. Lastly, the guard hairs—the longest hairs—are there to protect the undercoat. Cats come in different hair lengths, from bald to long hair, depending on the breed. Hairless cats, such as Sphynx, are very recognizable because of their bald appearance.
These hairless cats do have undercoats, so they still must be washed with cat shampoo. If your cat has hair no more than two inches long, it is considered short-haired cat, which includes breeds like Siamese and American Shorthair.
These breeds require minimal pet grooming in Singapore. You can use slicker brush or shedding comb. OK, got the math done there. Now, all the light falling on that book, one foot away from your candle equals both……. Ahh, we've confused you. Illuminance is the intensity or degree to which something is illuminated and is therefore not the amount of light produced by the light source. This is measured in foot-candles again! And when people talk about LUX, it's illuminance measured in metric units rather than English units of measure.
To reinforce that, LUX is the measurement of actual light available at a given distance. A lux equals one lumen incident per square meter of illuminated surface area. They're measuring the same thing, just using different measurement units. Pretend you're an old photographer, like O. Winston Link, or Ansel Adams. These two gods of black and white photography and a print made by either can fetch quite a hefty sum of money these days used a device called a light meter to help them judge their exposure.
There is another way of judging exposure-that's when someone whispers in our ear at a cocktail party, "You silly twit, your fly's come undone! These light meters were nifty devices. You could use it to show how much light was falling on an object, light from the sun, and reflected light energy from every thing else.
Or you could use it to show how much light energy was reflected off the object itself. Second is that we use an entirely different unit of measure if we are measuring the results of that light's output. We've measured two different things. We have a unit of measure for how much light is produced.
We Yankees express that as a foot-candle. Being lazy, we use it all over the place. Candlepower is a way of measuring how much light is produced by a light bulb, LED or by striking an arc in a Carbon-Arc spotlight. Is it a measure of how much light falls upon an object some distance away?
Is it a measure of how well we see an object that is illuminated by that light source? That's something all together different, and we are not going there! Further confusing the matter is beam focus. That's how much candlepower. Obviously, if you project all your light bulbs intensity at a given spot, or towards something, it will be more intense, and the illuminance will be higher.
And here comes the confusion! And a candela is the metric equivalent of the light output of that one candle, based on metric calculations. And since using a candle is rather imprecise, the definition was amended to replace a light source using carbon filaments with a very specific light source, see the following: Candlepower is a measure of light taken at the source-not at the target. Foot-candles tell us how much of that light is directed at an object we want to illuminate. Now, lets convert the lumens , a metric unit of light measurement, to candlepower.
We understand a candle radiates light equally in all directions, its output, in this consideration is not focused by any mechanical means lenses or reflectors. Pretend for a moment that a transparent sphere one meter in radius surrounds your candle. We know that there are Remember your Solid Geometry classes? The amount of light energy then reflected from that surface is defined thusly: The amount of energy emanating from one square meter of surface is one lumen.
And if we decrease the size of the sphere to one foot radius, we increase the reflected energy